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Charles Gulick 

Stunning tours of the strotosptiere, night fligt\ts, 
ond deod'Stick fandings, Tf^rillir>g, customGed 
flight scenarios put you in the piiot's seat, 

CtJfwodcife M. end Aioft psricnoJ compute's. 

A qoMPUTII B«okt Publicotton 




Charles Gulick 



COMPUTEr Publicationsjnc.® 

One of the ABC Publishing Companies ^^^r 

Greensboro, North Carolina 


Cop)rright 1985, Charles Giilick. All rights reserved. 

Reproduction or translation of any part of this work beyond that permitted by 
Sections 107 and 108 of the United States Copyright Act without the permission of 
the copyright owner is unlawful. 

Printed in the United States of America 

10 987654321 

ISBN 0-87455-022-X 

The author and publisher have made every effort in the preparation of this book to insure its ac- 
curacy. However, the information in this book is sold without warranty, either express or implied. 
Neither the author nor COMPUTE! Publications, Inc., will be liable for any damages caused or al- 
leged to be caused directly, indirectly, incidentally, or consequentially by the programs or infor- 
mation in this book. 

The opinions expressed in this book are solely those of the author and are not necessarily those of 
CONa>UTE! Publications, Inc. 

COMPUTE! Publications, Inc., Post Office Box 5406, Greensboro, NC 27403, (919) 
275-9809, is one of the ABC Publishing Companies and is not associated with any 
manufacturer of personal computers. Commodore 64 is a trademark of Commodore 
Electronics limited. Apple n is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. Atari is a trade- 
mark of Atari, Inc. IBM PC and PCjr are trademarks of International Business 
Machines, Inc. 

Flight Simulator is produced by Microsoft Corporation and copyright 1984 by Bruce 
Artwick. Flight Simulator II is produced by SubLogic Corporation and copyright 1984 
by Bruce Artwick. 



Foreword v 

Irttroduction and Instructior\s vii 


1. Low Pass on the Pacific 1 

2. Dead-Stick off San Clemente 5 

3. To Breathe Free 9 

4. A Game of Bridge 13 

5. A Sound Approach 17 

6. Fly Me a River 21 

7. Midnight Ride 25 

8. Threading the Needle 27 

9. Tell It on the Mountain 31 

10. We Aim to Please 35 

11. Long Island It Is 37 

12. A Place of Your Own 45 

13. One Good Turn 49 

14. The Mystery of Sammamish 51 

15. Another Fine Mess 55 

16. Two on an Island 57 

17. Water Ballet 61 

18. Decisions, Decisions 63 

19. Night Has a Thousand Eyes 65 

20. The Great Beyond 71 

^ 21. Falling Off a Log 77 

' ' 22. Circle Around Dinner 79 

23. High Jinks 81 

' • 24. GoldUocks 85 

[—J 25. Over on the Mayflower 89 

26. Pyramid Power 95 

27. Blues in the Night 99 

28. Touch and Go 103 

n 29. Strolling 107 




30. Yes or No? 109 

31. Of Sound Mind Ill 

32. No Time to Be LAX 115 « , 

33. Fasten Seat Belts 117 

34. Making Tracks 121 ij 

35. Space Glide 125 

36. Central Issue 127 

37. Have a Nuys Day 131 

38. Twilight Zone 137 

39. Olympic Run 141 

40. If...Then...Else 147 



Bruce Artwick's first version of Flight Simulator was released 
in 1979 and ran on the Apple II with just 16K of memory. 
Since then, Flight Simulator for the IBM PC and PCjr and 
Flight Simulator II for Apple, Atari, and Commodore 64 per- 
sonal computers have become huge successes. These second- 
generation simulations added more color, 3-D graphics, and 
more-realistic fljang. 

Thousands of computer users have enjoyed the experience 
of flight with these programs. And now, with COMPUTEI's 40 
Great Flight Simulator Adventures, both experienced aviators 
and rookie pilots can enjoy the thrill and excitement of flying 
40 customized flight simulator scenarios. 

Each scenario takes you on a tour through the air, and puts 
an instructor and guide right beside you. Parameters are pro- 
vided to position your aircraft in midflight or on the ground 
waiting for takeoff. The realism of Flight Simulator and Flight 
Simulator II — so realistic that the controls may seem intimidat- 
ing at first — is turned to your advantage in each scenario. 
With clear directions and thorough advice, 40 Great Flight 
Simulator Adventures gently takes you from the ground to the 

Imagine yourself in the cockpit of your Piper 181 Cherokee 
Archer, flying over mountains, around skyscrapers, and be- 
tween the twin towers of the World Trade Center. Experience 
the danger of night flying, soaring upside down, or landing 
your airplane without any power. 

Can you save the golden-haired girl on Catalina Island? The 
weather is terrible and no other pilot will risk it. You can't use 
your radar and you'll have to make a touchdown with just 
your instruments. 

Or maybe you'd prefer a pleasant flight along the Kankakee 
River or an aerial tour of New York City. 

You'll even see sights undocumented in the manuals, like 
mysterious airport (is it a secret base?) and strange aerial 
phenomena (have you entered the Twilight Zone?). 

With your copy of Flight Simulator or Flight Simulator II, a 
computer, and this book, you can experience all these and 
more. With 40 Great Flight Simulator Adventures as your 
instructor and guide, you'll learn tricks and maneuvers you 
never imagined possible. 




Welcome aboard. And take the left seat. 

The adventures I invite you to share here are designed to 
enhance your enjoyment of Flight Simulator and Flight Simu- 
lator II by introducing some of their limitless possibilities, 
beauties, and challenges. To me, designer Bruce Artwick's pro- 
grams are brilliant achievements, works conceived and exe- 
cuted with bravura and great genius. 

Not Text — the Voice of the Flight Instructor 

This is not a book to be read in the usual sense, but to be kept 
open across your knees or on your flight desk while you're 
flying. Once you have become familiar with the operation of 
the simulator as described in the manuals that come with the 
program, you are ready to fly the adventures in this book. 

To experience an adventure, you must first set up its param- 
eters in the edit mode, using a custom mode number. There 
are elements of suspense, surprise, and mystery in addition to 
navigation, communication, and other advisories. These are 
meaningful only if you're flying while you read and vice 
versa. Think of the text as the voice of a flight instructor, a lo- 
cal guide, or simply a friend along for the ride. 

Don't expect to fly all adventures flawlessly the first or even 
the fiftieth time, even if you're skilled at flying the simulator. 
Interfacing the text and operations requires both familiariza- 
tion and practice. And if we were able to fly perfectly, who'd 
want to? Even the eagle is always learning. 


Setting Up Adventure Modes 

With the simulator loaded, press Esc (E on the Commodore 
64) to enter edit mode. At the top of your screen, under 
"Simulation Control," you'll see "User mode," and an arrow 
pointing to the number of the mode you're currently in. It 
should be if you just loaded the simulator. 

If you're not at User mode 0, type and enter a to get 

Next, change the User mode number to the next available 
mode starting with 10 and numbering to 24 (29 on an IBM). 
For instance, in the first adventure, "Low Pass on the Pacific," 
change the mode number to 10. This is done by entering a 
value of 100 plus the desired number, in our example the value 
110. Type 110 and press RETURN or Enter. You'll see the 
User mode number change to 10. (If you type a mode number 
without adding 100, all parameters wQl switch to spurious val- 
ues which must be corrected — a lot of unnecessary typing.) 

Should you wish to change the Sound, Autocoordhiation, or 
Communication rate parameters, advance the arrow and do so. 
But this book assimies you're flying with Reality (off) and the 
control parameters as ttiey are found at the preset User mode 
0. (You can, if you want, set a different communication rate.) 

Now change each parameter under "Aircraft Position" — 
North position. East position. Altitude, and so forth — as given 
at the pertinent adventure heading. Then do the same under 
the "Environmental" heading. Change only those values 
which are listed for the adventure. Leave Cloud layers at un- 
less the chapter calls for other values. Note that "Wind" in 
this book refers to Surface wind. Be sure to set both velocity 
(knots) and direction (degrees). Except for a few adventures, 
winds aloft and shear altitudes remain as you find them in 
preset mode 0. 

Check your entries very carefully. A wrong or omitted digit 
could radically change the result of an adventure. 

When you have entered and checked all parameters, press 
the appropriate key to save the current mode to the mode li- 
brary (Ins for IBM; S on Apples and the Commodore 64; 
CTRL-S for Atari). The mode you have set up is now saved 


until you turn off the computer. (See below for saving modes 
permanently to disk.) 

Follow the procedure above to set up any and all of the cus- 
tom modes in this book. You may enter the parameters of 15 
(20 on the IBM) of this book's 40 custom modes while in edit 
mode. Or just type in 1 or 2 if you're eager to get started, then 
come back for tite others later. 

Adventure Tips. Before you press Esc (E on the Com- 
modore 64) to exit edit mode, read the first line or so of the 
relevant chapter so that you'll know something about what to 
expect. Then exit and begin the adventure. Use the Pause (P) 
key as frequently as you like to catch up with or anticipate 
the text. 

Make a habit of checking the heading on your instrument 
panel the moment you exit edit mode and confirm that it 
agrees with the heading called for at the start of the adventure 
(allow a second or two for the simulator to settle down). If the 
heading is not correct, press the reset (called Recall on the 
IBM) simulator key (PrtSc on the PC; Del on the PCjr; = on 
the Atari; + on the Commodore 64; SHIFT— I- on Apples). A 
one-degree difference should be ignored. But very often the 
simulator is far from the heading set up in edit mode, and you 
won't see what the text indicates you should, either on your 
panel or out your windshield. 

Sometimes there will be other disparities, such as the vfrong 
altitude. A wrong altitude will usually cause the aircraft to 
dive and crash. This has nothing to do with the parameters of 
the chapters (if you entered them correctly), but is one of sev- 
eral simulator phenomena. OrUy one adventure, "Another 
Fine Mess," deliberately begins with a form of crash, for rea- 
sons which will be made obvious. In no other adventure 
should the first thing you experience be a crash or splash or 
abnormally hairy attitude. 

So whenever things don't seem right, use the reset (Recall 
on IBM) simulator key until what you're seeing agrees with 
what you're reading. (When you've flown an adventure a few 
times, you'll know immediately if the simulator's being 

This book is not a replacement for the manuals that came 
with the program. Although it is not necessary to know every 
detail in the manuals, you should be familiar with the basic 
controls and necessary keypresses of the simulator. 

Flying a Mode 

If you've just finished entering all parameters correctly, exit 
edit mode by pressing Esc (E on the Commodore 64). If you're 
switching from an old mode to a new one, position the arrow 
opposite User mode and enter the desired mode number. Then 
press the RETURN or Enter key (you'll see the parameters re- 
set to those of the selected mode), and exit the flight. If you 
are using an Atari you'll have to insert the Scenery disk to fly 
most of the adventures. 

Sometimes the reset simulator key must be pressed several 
times before the simulator corrects itself to the true editor 
parameters. Make a habit of checking the heading, in particu- 
lar, when you start a flight, to be sure it agrees with the 

It's important to fly all modes in this book with gear down, 
as if the gear were nonretractable. Speeds and many other 
parameters are based on that flight condition. 

Three cues are provided to help you follow flight events: 

indicates the point where you're to take over the 
controls and fly the plane. Don't touch the con- 
trols until then. 

calls your attention to a view you should observe 
out your windshield or on radar. (Note that colors 
described will vary depending on the computer 
and the type of monitor or TV you're using.) 

signals that an action of some sort is required of 

The 40 flights presented in the book will occupy three disks 
(two on the IBM). It's suggested that you enter and save the 
parameters for all 40 flights that appear in the book, placing 


the maximum number of flights on each disk (20 on each IBM 
disk and 15 for all other machines). I suggest you write the 
mode number and disk name in this book below the title of 
each adventure. That way you can readily find the parameters 
for any flight to which you want to return. As described in the 
Flight Simulator and Flight Simulator 11 manuals, modes 
through 9 are preset modes and modes 10 to 24 (29 on an 
IBM) are User modes. 

Resetting a Mode 

While flying you can always reestablish a mode (return to the 
startup condition) by pressing the reset (Recall on IBM) simu- 
lator key (PrtSc on the PC; Del on the PCjr; = on the Atari; 
+ on the Commodore 64; SHIFT- + on Apples). This is useful 
if you've lost your way in regard to the instructions of a 
particular flight adventure or if you just want to start again. 

Pressing the reset simulator key while in edit mode vdll also 
reset a mode to its original parameters. It's a good idea to do 
this every time you enter the edit mode to change modes, and 
necessary if you intend saving the mode to disk. Otherwise, 
parameters will be those in effect when you entered edit mode 
(for instance in midflight) rather than those of startup. 

Saving Resident Modes to Disk 

Enter edit mode. Remove the Flight Simulator disk and insert a 
blank disk. It need not be formatted. Press the appropriate key 
(S for the IBM; CTRL-Z for a Commodore 64, Apple, or Atari) 
to save the modes currently stored in the mode library. When 
you see the "Modes Saved" message or when your disk drive 
stops spinning, remove, label, and store the newly recorded 
disk until you wish to use it. If you wish to continue flying, 
reinsert the Flight Simulator disk and proceed as usual. Remem- 
ber to use a write-protect tab for permanent protection; saving to 
disk destroys all previous material on that disk. 

Loading a Custom Disk 

Enter edit mode. Remove the Flight Simulator disk and insert 
the custom disk. Press the appropriate key to load (L for the 


IBM; CTRL-X for the Commodore 64, Apple, and Atari). When 
you see the "Modes Loaded" message or when your disk 
drive stops spinning, remove the custom disk and reinsert the 
Flight Simulator disk. Press any key and proceed as usual. 

It is my hope that this book vdll help you share the intense 
interest, excitement of discovery, and sheer fun I've had 
exploring Bruce Artwick's achievement. 

Now I'm right here in the right seat. Let's get flying. 

Charles Gulick 
August, 1985 





mm ■ 

ooo 1 




North Position: 15393 
East Position: 5806 
Altitude: 1220 
Pitch: 358 
Heading: 223 
Airspeed: 81 
Throttle: 9760 

Rudder: 32767 
Ailerons: 32767 

Elevators: 39935 
Time: 7:30 
Season: 2 — Spring 
Wind: 5 Kts, 180 


You're in a gentle glide to the southwest, with 
your aircraft pointed directly at Marina del Rey, a 
popular (wild, some say) boat basin between 
Santa Monica Municipal (on your right) and Los 
Angeles International airports. The airport to your 
immediate left is Hughes (PVT). A zoom-out radar 
view will show the three airports as you near the 
marina. Santa Monica Bay and the Pacific Ocean 
stretch in the sunlight ahead. 

You'll pass directly over the marina at about 
1000 feet, so you'll have a close-up view. Sit back 
and enjoy. Your aircraft is in slow, but stable, 
flight. (That little white spot slipping off your 
screen to the left is, exactly, nothing. Take my 
word. I checked it out.) 

When you're past the harbor and can see only 
the inlet and ocean, take a rear view. The north- 
south highway behind you is the San Diego Free- 
way (Interstate 405), and the road cutting in from 
the east is the Santa Monica Freeway (Interstate 
10), which you could follow all the way to 
Jacksonville, Florida — if you had enough gas. In 
the background are the San Gabriel Mountains, 
about 20 miles away. Keep the rear view until you 
get a look at the marina from the ocean side, slip- 
ping away under your tail. 

Now switch to a left rear view and take a low 
altitude glance at Los Angeles International Air- 
port, behind you across the inlet. A right rear view 
will show you Santa Monica as it might look on 
the downwind leg of a landing approach. |_j 

Next look directly behind you again and see it 
all — a fine panorama of the shoreline, Marina del LJ 
Rey, the San Gabriel Mountains, and finally a bit 
of Los Angeles International. Don't touch the con- U 
trols until you have that whole picture. You're los- 
ing very little if any altitude, probably have LJ 
between 700 and 1000 feet, and the Pacific is, of ^ 


course, at sea level. So enjoy the view fully before 
you take over. 

Now add power to get at\ rpm reading of 2000. 
While climbing, tune your NAV to the Santa Cat- 
alina VOR, 111.4, and get a heading. Then fly to 
that swank little island's airport, about 35 miles 
south. Tower is 122.7, elevation 1602. There you 
can fish, swim on some beautiful natural beaches, 
play tennis, or go horseback riding. William 
Wrigley, Jr., had his home on Catalina, and in- 
vested some of the fortune he made (selling chew- 
ing gum) to bring art and culture to the island. 
You can still find some of the chewing gum there, 
stuck under the seats in the movie theater. 




North Position: 14974 
East Position: 5664 
Altitude: 5000 
Heading: 245 
Airspeed: 122 

Rudder: 32767 
Ailerons: 32767 

Elevators: 32767 
Time: 16:00 
Season: 3 — Summer 
Wind: 16 Kts, 230 

Please read the entire text before beginning this 

You're straight and level at 5000 feet when your 
engine quits. (It quit the instant you exited edit 
mode, as simulated by Throttle 0. You may not 
use throttle from here on out.) 

You must make a dead-stick landing on San 
Clemente Island, which is directly below you. 

Though your Los Angeles chart shows the is- 
land almost due south of Catalina, it doesn't show 
the terrain. Neither does it show (nor does the 
simulator) that there is, in the real world, a navy 
runway across the northern end of San Clemente. 
This runway appears on the FAA Los Angeles sec- 
tional chart. 

If you can make it to the runway, your chances 
of a respectable landing (though the navy won't 
be cheering) are excellent. Its elevation is about 20 
feet above sea level. 

Your second best choice is to land somewhere 
along the relatively flat western side of the island. 
The rocky eastern side presents an engraved in- 
vitation to disaster. 

Will you attempt the navy runway? And if so, 
from which direction? (Assume the navy runway 
numbers are 5/23.) Or will you settle for some- 
where along the west shore? Of course, you might 
very well survive a ditch attempt, too, but it'd be 
a lonely swim. 

Rate yourself an expert if you land safely on the 
northern tip of the island and on a heading of 
230. The closer you are to the water (short of a 
splash!), the better. (You're not close enough to 
the water to say you've landed on the tip of the 
island, from either direction, unless you can see 
the northeast or southwest comers of the geog- 
raphy out your windshield.) If you land on the 

northern tip heading anywhere from 220 to 240, 
though not 230 exactly, you're still superpilot. 
Otherwise, for your approach from the east, don't 
feel too smug even if you set her down safely. 

For a landing on the same end of the island, but 
from the opposite direction — and on a heading of 
50 degrees — rate yourself a semiexpert, with 
appropriate reservations as above for up to 10- 
degree deviations from the runway heading, and 
for the picture out your windshield. 

For a landing anywhere on the west shore, con- 
sider yourself an advanced fledgling. And for any 
other kind of landing anywhere else on the island 
(not involving a crash, of course), think of yourself 
as at least "a pilot," since there's a chance you'd 
walk away from it. 

Finally, unless you're serious when you say you 
can walk on water, give yourself a zero for any 
blue Pacific conclusion. 

A crash v^l automatically put you in a new try. 
But crash or not, practice may eventually get you 
that coveted "Hey, who are you?" from the navy 
San Clemente tower. 






North Position: 17097 
East Position: 21028 
Altitude: 22 
Heading: 240 

Rudder: 32767 
Ailerons: 32767 

Elevators: 32767 
Time: 7:00 
Season: 2 — Spring 
Wind: 3 Kts, 206 


You've turned onto runway 22 at New York's La 
Guardia Airport, ready to taxi into position for 

But first, use radar to examine your location. 
Zoom out until the runway disappears. You'll 
see three separate bodies of water, two of which, 
at about two o'clock, join like a pair of needle- 
points. The thinner one is the East River, and the 
arrowhead-shaped one, directly behind you, is 
Flushing Bay. The bay joins with Long Island 
Sound just past the Bronx-Whitestone and Throgs 
Neck bridges, visible with their connecting high- 
ways on your screen. The broad blue brush stroke 
is the Hudson River. The geography to your right 
(this side of the Hudson) is the south end of the 
Bronx, and to your left, the Borough of Queens. 

Zoom out one more notch. The pointing finger 
is Manhattan. A little sluiceway of water that 
doesn't show, but is about at the knuckle of the 
finger, connects the Hudson and East rivers. It's 
what makes Manhattan an island. 

Return to your out-the-windshield view. The 
three buildings in the distance are the Empire 
State Building and the twin 110-floor World Trade 
Center towers. Just beyond the latter, but invisible 
at your elevation, is the Statue of Liberty. We're 
going to see all three from the air. 

Take off and climb straight out. Plan to level off at 
1500, but as you pass through 750, start a shallow 
right turn to head approximately west, or until the 
World Trade Center towers are positioned well to 
the left on your windshield. Your objective is to 
fly between the towers and the venerable Empire 
State Building, once the tallest building in the 
world, which is or shortly will be visible. Head 
your aircraft to achieve that. 



I ! 


Pause (P) before you fly too far, and admire the 
whole view below and ahead. You can see the 
East River (with the Manhattan Bridge to Brooklyn 
at the extreme left), all of downtown Manhattan, 
the Statue of Liberty (presently just a dot to the 
left of the Trade Center towers), and the Hudson 
River from its mouth in Upper Bay. If you have a 
bridge at the lower right on your windshield, 
that's the Queensboro Bridge. Across the Hudson 
is, of course. New Jersey. What doesn't show, here 
or in the simulation, are the beautiful steep 
cliffs — the Palisades — on the New Jersey side. 

As you fly on, use your right and left side views 
to see first the Empire State Building, then the 
imposing World Trade Center. Finally, use a rear 
view to take in the whole area from the New Jer- 
sey side of the Hudson. Keep this view until the 
Statue of Liberty, still just a dot, comes into the 
scene on this side of the Hudson (far right on the 
screen when looking directly rear). We'll have a 
closer look at the lady. 

Add carb heat, chop your power, and start a de- 
scent to an altitude of 500 feet. As you descend, 
do a fairly steep 180 (approximately) to the left, 
straightening out to get the statue directly ahead 
of your aircraft. 

Continue your descent, if necessary, to get 
straight and level at 500. Slow-fly the airplane. 
And don't use Pause until after the simulator ac- 
cesses its disk. The dot will transform into a full- 
figure statue, proud and solitary on its island. Get 
up close and personal. Time now to pause. 

And reflect. 





Once past the statue, climb to 1500 feet while set- ^ 
ting up a course to the right of the Trade Center ^ 
towers (if you're not already on same). You'll soon j 
see La Guardia directly ahead. The winds haven't ' — ' 
shifted, so over the East River turn left to head 40 \ i 

degrees and you'll be downwind in a righthand 
pattern for runway 22. 

As the airport passes on your right, take the high- 
est radar view that shows the intersecting strips. 
It's a great graphic. 

Then, about as the airport disappears off the bottom 
of your radar screen, return to out-the-windshield 
and turn base (130 degrees) for runway 22. 

Enjoy your finale over Flushing Bay, too, where 
the runway reaches right to the edge of the water. 
For a while, at least, you've been far above the 
huddled masses that make New York the savage 
and beautiful place it is. 




North Position: 17058 
East Position: 20995 
Altitude: 76 
Pitch: 358 
Heading: 250 
Airspeed: 81 
Throttle: 9760 

Rudder: 32767 
Ailerons: 32767 

Elevators: 40959 
Time: 9:00 
Season: 2 — Spring 
Wind: 10 Kts, 270 


At times the simulator simply will not accept this 
mode, and the plane will crash due to a rapid 
drop in airspeed. However, the parameters are 
correct for a safe flight as described. If you expe- 
rience repeated failures, I'd suggest you try an- 
other adventure, and then try this one again later. 
Sometimes, just a moment or so in Adventure 12, 
for example, makes this mode work properly. 

You are at a hairy altitude in slow flight over 
the East River, just where it bends west under 
Manhattan Bridge. The southern extremity of Man- 
hattan is on your right and Brookl5m is on your 
left. The people in aU the buildings have come to 
their windows at the sound of yovir throttled-back 
engine. The people in the streets have all stopped 
to watch, too, wondering if you're going to buy it 
(and I don't mean purchase it). The phones are 
also ringing off the hook in every police precinct 
in the area. 

Because, yes, you're going to fly — or try to fly — 
between the superstructure and the roadway of 
Manhattan Bridge, passing just to the right of the 
center pier. You've only a few feet to spare. 

The chances are excellent if you don't touch the 
controls, because you're pretty stable just as you 
are. Sit this first one out and watch. The actual 
fly-through happens pretty fast, because Man- 
hattan Bridge is, after all, only a road's width on 
the landscape. 

Relive this adventure a few times using reset (Re- 
call on IBM). 

Take different views each time you make the pass 
to see the event from several angles. Try a radar 
close-up, too. And if you have any doubts that 

you're actually just above the traffic level, take a 
straight-down view and see the bridge go by un- 
der you. 

After a few passes, take the controls and try some 
variations. Maybe fly under some sections. Maybe 
over at other points. You can try anything once. 
But sometimes, in the real world, only once. 






North Position: 17606 

East Position: 22132 

Altitude: 4468 



Heading: 238 

Airspeed: 126 

Throtde: 22000 (IBM only) 

Throtde: 19952 (all except IBM) 

Rudder: 32767 
Ailerons: 32767 

Elevators: 33023 (IBM only) 
Elevators: 37119 (all except IBM) 
Time: 16:44 
Season: 3 — Summer 
Wind: 15 Kts, 180 


Approximately 20 nautical miles ahead of you is 
Martha's Vineyard, a resort island off the southern 
coast of Massachusetts. You're about 55 miles 
southeast of Boston. 

Access radar and adjust your zoom until you see 
the mainland and two somewhat triangular is- 
lands. The section of mainland you're over is 
Cape Cod, itself an island by virtue of a canal 
which divides it from the spherical land mass on 
your right. The body of water there and behind 
you is Cape Cod Bay. 

The triangular island to the left is Nantucket, 
where, sad to say, elegant museums and artifacts 
commemorate sea captains who amassed great 
wealth hunting and killing whales. The water 
you're over now is Nantucket Sound. Go to the 
out-the-windshield view. 

Tune NAV 2 to Martha's Vineyard VOR, 108.2, 
and you'll find you're on or close to the 240- 
degree radial. Tune NAV 1 to the Martha's Vine- 
yard ILS (Instrument Landing System) frequency, 
108.7, and set the OBI to 240 with a TO indica- 
tion. Fly that needle to get on the 240 radial. 

When your DME reads 17 to 18 nautical miles, 
you'll see the Martha's Vineyard airport straight 
ahead. You're on a long final for runway 24. 

The objectives here, besides sightseeing, are to 
practice setting up a pattern approach speed and 
tracking the glideslope needle. 

This long approach gives you a chance to 
experiment and familiarize yourself with glidepath 
vagaries. The horizontal needle represents the de- 
sired glideslope. Don't sweat it, however, until it 
moves toward the center of the instrument. Then 
it's ready to work. 

Reduce power and set up your approach. Use 
flaps or not to suit yourself. 

Adjust pitch to get and keep the glideslope 
needle centered. And use power to maintain the 
desired airspeed. Or use them in any combination 
that you've learned or that suits you. Meanwhile, 
keep the vertical needle centered. 

That sounds so simple, doesn't it? 

But if you're new to this sort of thing, you'll 
find your eyes are glued to the instruments (note 
plural). You'll think there must be an awful lot of 
turbulence or something up here. 

When the glideslope needle goes below the 
centerline — as it surely will — give down elevator 
and/or reduce power. When the needle goes 
above the line — as it just as surely will, often — 
give up elevator and/or.... But keep everlastingly 
at it. Get on top of it. Anticipate. Coax. Fight. 
Encourage. Fly the thing. Don't let it fly you. 

Just as everlastingly, try to maintain your ap- 
proach speed. Your eyes will dance (through the 
glue) from the airspeed indicator to the glideslope 
needle, and back and forth, and you may get into 
some wild attitude and airspeed configvirations, 
depending on your experience. It's a charming and 
challenging game. 

And don't forget to keep lined up with the run- 
way. (At least you have visual contact on this 
flight, for which be thankful, but if you're in- 
spired, use just the ILS vertical needle, which in- 
dicates the runway centerline.) Listen for the outer 
marker signal. And slow to landing speed for the 

This is a neat way to spend a Sunday afternoon, 
particularly if it's raining outside (real world). But 
at some time or another, it says here, persistence 
is supposed to win. Probably when you least ex- 
pect it, you'll find you've very prettily set her 
down — and right on the money. So when you feel 
you have the hang of it, add some clouds with 
bottoms around 250 feet (field elevation is 68 feet) 
and fly the ILS for real. 






North Position: 16862 
n East Position: 16625 

Altitude: 1000 

Pitch: 359 

n Heading: 226 

Airspeed: 74 
n Throtde: 10724 

Rudder: 32767 
AUerons: 32767 

Elevators: 41216 
Time: 15:00 
Season: 3 — Summer 
Wind: 4 Kts, 160 


As soon as you exit edit mode, switch in radar 
and zoom out to the view, which shows you an 
uninterrupted segment of river, an airport ahead 
at about one o'clock, and a city to your right. 

Press P once you have this radar view so that you 
can get acquainted with the surroundings. 

You're flying over the Kankakee River in Illi- 
nois, at a point about 30 miles south of Chicago. 
The airport on your radar screen is Greater Kan- 
kakee and the city you see is (as you've probably 
guessed) Kankakee. 

Now resume your flight and your out-the- 
windshield view. Retain the slow-flight mode and 
maintain 1000 feet as you fly the meandering 
course of the river. Try to time and execute your 
turns so that you're always in harmony with the 
natural flow of the river and always between its 

The effect may be for you, as it was for me, a 
pleasant and gentle one. And you may experience, 
particularly as you approach the point where the 
river bends through the city, some of the calm and 
serenity that a river lends to a landscape and to 
our sensibilities. 

Each turn provides a new horizon for the eye 
and, by the same chemistry, for the mind. Perhaps 
you'll feel, as I did, that this is a river you'll return 
to sometimes. Just to fly it. To see where its vistas 
might take the imagination. Or for the soothing 
effects of distance — the feeling of space somehow 
separate from time. 

How far does this river go, you might wonder, 
as I did the first time I flew it. And one thing I 
knew for certain: I wouldn't stop until I reached 
the end. The river was like a narrative I had to 

On Kankakee, each curve of the blue on the 
landscape leads to another. I was reminded of the 
allegory of a boat traveling a winding river. An 
observer standing on a section of riverbank the 
boat has passed can no longer see it, thus, it's in 
the past to him, just as his presence there is an 
event of the p^st to the occupants of the boat. 
Meanwhile, a pilot in a plane above sees the ob- 
server on the riverbank plus the boat and every- 
thing its occupants observe. Further, the pilot sees 
what is around the next bend of the river, which 
for the boaters is the future. So, past, present, and 
future for everyone below is just a single moment 
for the seer with the wings. 

As a suggestion, why not do a 180 when you 
reach the end and see the river from the opposite 





North Position: 17155 
East Position: 16675 
Altitude: 2362 

n Pitch: 359 


n Heading: 352 

Airspeed: 80 

n ITirotde: 10500 



Rudder: 32767 
Ailerons: 32767 

Elevators: 39935 
Time: 3:30 
Season: 1 — Winter 
Wind: 8 Kts, 90 






You're at or around approach speed and 

configuration, inbound to Meigs (where were you 

until 3:30 a.m., an5rway?). You're cleared for a [_j 

straight-in approach to runway 36. 


Take over and continue, making any and all 
corrections to suit your purpose and your flying 

The purpose here is to give you a readily acces- 
sible setup for practicing approaches and landings 
in general and night approaches and landings in 

The most useful technique for such practice, I 
find, is to deliberately vary your configuration so 
that you're not always approaching in the same 
familiar one. That means vary both your heading 
and your altitude along with power setting if 

For example, once you depart the edit mode, 
you might climb a couple of hundred feet higher 
and then take up the approach. Or turn to a head- 
ing 15 or 20 degrees to the left or right of the one 
provided, and then settle down to your approach 
and landing. 

Another variation might be to assume your 
landing is from the opposite direction; in other 
words, you are cleared to land on runway 18 
rather than 36. Either direction, it's a crosswind 

In any event, considering the hour, I trust you 
are sober and are concentrated solely upon flying 1_J 
the airplane. Should you feel drowsy, pull over to 
the curb and shut down the engine. LJ 


North Position: 21344 
East Position: 6611 
Altitude: 30 
Heading: 293 

Rudder: 32767 
Ailerons: 32767 

Elevators: 32767 
Time: 9:00 
Season: 2 — Spring 
Wind: 7 Kts, 4 


You're ready to taxi into position for runway 33 at 
Renton Municipal in Seattle. 

Switch in your radar and zoom out until you 
see portions of three bodies of water on your 

To your left is Puget Sound, with Henry M. 
Jackson (Seattle-Tacoma) International Airport on 
its eastern bank. A bit north on the same high- 
way. Interstate 5, is Boeing Field (King County) 
International. The water you'll take off over is 
Lake Washington, and the highway running 
alongside it is Interstate 405. Interstate 90 sweeps 
in from the east, and the little lake just to the 
right of it is Lake Sammamish. 

We'll be flying contact at 1000 feet, so get lined 
up heading 330 degrees and take off when you're 
ready. Use a shallow climbout so that you'll be 
able to see the landscape over your nose. 

At an altitude of about 500 feet, you'll see Mer- 
cer Island straight ahead. Hold your heading and 
continue your climb. 

As you're leveling off at 1000 feet, turn left to a 
heading of about 300 degrees. You'll see some tall 
buildings out your windshield. Point toward the 
center of the cluster of them. Shortly, the simu- 
lator will access its disk, twice in the space of a 
few minutes. Then a single tower vdll stand 
forth — the Space Needle at Seattle Center. 

Head straight toward the building and plan to 
fly over it at about 1000 feet. As you get closer, 
you'll see what looks like an observation tower at 
the top. This is a revolving restaurant, which of- 
fers a beautiful panoramic view of Seattle, Puget 
Sound, Mount Rainier, and, directly below, for the 
diners in the restaurant, other features preserved, 
like the Space Needle itself from the 1962 World's 

The moment the Space Needle disappears under 
your nose, take a straight-down view. You'll get a 
dramatic close-up of the circular restaurant passing 
below you. Then set a direct rear view and see it 
recede off your tail, with Mount Rainier in the 

When you're well out over Puget Sound, do a 180 
and have another pass at the Space Needle. 

The southernmost highway crossing Lake Wash- 
ington, and intersecting Mercer Island, is 1-90, 
ahead of you. When you can spot the runway at 
Renton, get into configuration to set down again 
on runway 33. 






North Position: 21219 
East Position: 6339 
Altitude: 204 
Heading: 90 

Rudder: 32767 
Ailerons: 32767 

Elevators: 32767 
Time: 15:00 
Season: 2 — Spring 
Wind: 5 Kts, 90 


Get lined up for runway 8 here at Olympia 
Municipal (the city of Olympia is Washington's 
state capital, a staggering fact of which I had no 
inkling, did you?). 

You'll see that you're also lined up for Mount 
Rainier, the highest point in the state— 14,410 feet 
in the clouds. 

You can fly to this majestic landmark visually, 
of course. But tune your NAV to Olympia 
VORTAC anyway (113.4) so that the DME, once 
we get to Rainier, will tell us just how far it is 
from where we're sitting now. 

Take off, point for the peak, and just climb. And 
keep climbing. Full power all the way. We're go- 
ing to a summit meeting. 

While en route, you can reflect that Mount 
Rainier was a blazing volcano several hundred 
thousand years ago, and reached perhaps 2000 
feet higher than it does now. Where the peak is 
now, imagine a coneful of flame. And then imag- 
ine a tremendous eruption, with debris and vol- 
canic ash blackening all the blue sky you see. 
Because Mount Rainier literally blew its top — 
blasted away 2000 feet of its summit and untold 
thousands of tons of rock — before it settled down 
to become the serene mountain you see today. 

The Cessna's service ceiling is 14,900, Archer's 
is 13,650. But this trip is special, so head right on 
up at your best possible rate of climb. As you gain 
altitude, you'll be hard-pressed to hold your rate 
of climb above 1000 feet per minute, and then 
above 500 fpm, even with the yoke in your lap. 
But it gets still harder. Anyway, try to climb to 
and maintain 15,000, and you'll be above Mount 
Rainier, highest point in the state of Washington. 
(Don't be surprised if you can't get the altitude, 
though it can be done. Also, you may learn how 
easy it is to stall even with the airspeed looking 
real fat.) 

When your DME reads a few tenths over 41 nauti- 
cal miles from the Olympia OMNI station, there's 
a strip of green just below the snow level of the 
mountain (though it isn't visible from a Cessna). 
Flowers bloom here, and there are thick forests 
where deer, elk, bears, and other animals find 
sanctuary. Use radar to check on your relationship 
to the mountain. 

There's a surprise waiting for you at or near the 
summit of Mount Rainier. I won't tell you what it 
is. But I guided you all the way here to show it to 
you. In the Cessna, the surprise requires some fly- 
ing around the mountain, using all kinds of views, 
before you can appreciate it. Then, if you dare, fly 
right smack into all that fleecy snow. 

In the Archer the surprise will happen automati- 
cally. It's fantastic. 





m to 


North Position: 17069 
East Position: 20984 
Altitude: 1200 
Heading: 212 
Airspeed: 122 
Throtde: 19455 

Rudder: 32767 
Ailerons: 32767 

Elevators: 32767 (IBM only) 
Elevators: 36863 (all except IBM) 
Time: 12:00 
Season: 2— Spring 
Wind: Kts, 


Hands off controls! 

Unless some unexpected breeze kicks in, or 
you're carrying a case of liquid refreshments in the 
cockpit which fouls up your weight and balance, 
the parameters above will do the job. And you'll 
see New York's World Trade Center towers like 
no one else has ever seen them before or since. 

Take this ride a few times, looking out both sides. 

And don't forget the out-the-rear view after the 
pass. Also look at the angle close-up on radar. 
So now you know it can be done. 

So now do it yourself. Just crank in a little right or 
left aileron at the outset, and it's a whole new ball 

The towers are not figments of the imagination. 
If you hit one, trust me, you'll know it. Sometimes 
they seem awesomely close, and you still make it. 
And sometimes.... 

Radar doesn't give you an accurate picture of 
near misses because the radar depiction of your 
aircraft is not to scale, except in an extreme close- 
up (such as when you're taking a realistic view of 
a runway). So, even though it looks like a wing 
will contact one of those massive walls, you'll still 
be home free. But too close you can come. Your 
out-the-windshield view is your best guide. 

If you absolutely cannot stand crashing, con- 
sider that P can stand for Panic as well as Pause. 

Too, there's always a steep bank available, 
which just might save that beautiful airplane. 
And, beautiful or not, the only neck you have. 



LT Oil P 

6Ehr- m-i 

LiSHT-:-- OM 

I i'J. U U DUE i.! 


North Position: 17352 
East Position: 21751 
Altitude: 105 
Heading: 280 

Rudder: 32767 
Ailerons: 32767 

Elevators: 32767 
Time: 6:28 
Season: 4— Fall 
Wind: 3 Kts, 320 



It's dawn, and you're right at the base of the 2 of 
the numbers for runway 28, at Rhode Island's 
Block Island State Airport. 

Daylight turns on in a minute or so— at 6:30. 
Watch it happen through your windshield. The 
black landscape suddenly turns green as it's 
bathed in early sunlight. Beautiful morning to go 

And, if you're a bird lover, keep your eyes 
open. Nearly every northeastern species can be 
seen here this time of year, since birds use the is- 
land as a primary migration checkpoint. It also has 
fine beaches and is a mecca for bicyclists, fishers, 
and beachcombers. 

We're flying contact this morning, so whenever 
you're ready take her off. (Watch for the opposite 
runway numbers to sail by under you.) 

Your aircraft is pointed toward the mouth of 
Long Island Sound. 

Stay on your heading of 280 and get straight 
and level at 2000 feet. 

Long Island, New York, is left on your wind- 
shield, and the southern edge of Connecticut can 
be seen on the right. Directly behind you is Block 
Island. In the far background is Martha's Vine- 
yard, then lots of Atlantic Ocean. 

As you fly, add about five to ten degrees to your 
heading so that the farthest expanse of water lies 
straight ahead of you, and the landfalls are about 
equally divided to left and right. 

Zoom out to a high altitude radar view to confirm 
that you're headed straight up the arrowhead of 
Long Island Sound. Then just keep on keepin' on. 

You can pretend it's on automatic pilot if you 
like and go make yourself a cup of coffee. Or sit 
back and clip your fingernails. Long Island Sound 



is a long hunk of water. And Long Island is a 
heavy piece of geography, as people who ride the 
Long Island Railroad or drive the Long Island 
Expressway to Manhattan every day will testify. 

And really, that's part of what flying is about, 
isn't it? The drone of the engine. The only 
slightly, slowly changing landscape ahead. A point 
far away on the horizon. A place where sky and 
water divide exactly in half. It's the kind of thing 
that gradually bleeds the stresses out of you, like 
sitting at the end of a fishing pole for a couple of 
hours or looking at stars. 

You can break the monotony by occasionally 
trying to raise the control tower at Igor I. Sikorski 
Memorial, 120.9. Maybe this early in the morning 
Igor Ivanovich (who among other things built the 
first helicopter in 1939) himself will be operating 
the microphone. Except he went to the great heli- 
port in the sky in 1972. When you get close 
enough, an5way, the tower will respond. 

Meanwhile, tune your NAV to Bridgeport VOR, 
108.8, and at least you'll know how many miles it 
is to his airport. 

Not that we're going there. But we'll see it. 

This is a good trip for practicing things like 
holding religiously to an altitude, changing alti- 
tude, tuning OMNI stations to establish your exact 
location (your New York/Boston chart is literally 
buzzing with them), and exploring radar views. Or 
you might want to practice wagging your wings, 
power on and power off stalls, climbs and glides, 
even loops. Whatever it is, you've time on your 
hands. Just keep getting back to your heading. 
Visually. Up the Sound. And your altitude, 2000. 

Eventually you'll make out a highway zipping 
in from the right side of your windshield. It's 
Interstate 91, which joins up with and becomes 
Interstate 95 where it parallels the shoreline up 


ahead. It's the same 1-95 that eventually bends 
west and crosses the Hudson River at the George 
Washington Bridge. 

About here you should be able to raise Sikorski, 
or they'll raise you. To call a station you're tuned 
to when you think you're in its range, just hit C 
on the PC, Shift-C on PCjr, and Control-C three 
times on all other machines. 

Keep flying straight toward what seems to be a 
point where Long Island and Connecticut almost 
touch. The Sound points to it like an arrowhead. 

But it's an optical illusion — or a simulator illu- 
sion. As soon as the simulator accesses the disk, 
you'll see the point disappear. And a radar view 
will show you're headed more for the shore of 
Connecticut than you are following the contours 
of Long Island Sound. 

So make a shallow left turn to a heading of 
about 260, and again you're over open water. Cor- 
rect again so that you have equal shoreline to left 
and right and are pointed toward the farthest ex- 
panse of open water you can see. 

Take a look out your right side now, and perhaps 
you'll spot Tweed-New Haven Airport, with its 
runway right at the water's edge. 

Then you'll see Sikorski, also with an over- 
water approach. Your DME will tell you how far 
out over Long Island Sound you are. 

As you pass Sikorsky, take the highest altitude 
radar view you can (the one before the greenout) 
and be sure your nose is pointed right up the new 
arrowhead toward its tip. Make any small correc- 
tions necessary to point it there. 

The horizon will take on different aspects as 
you fly the ever-narrowing Sound now. Litfle juts 
of land will appear and disappear. And a highway 
will take shape on the left side of your wind- 

shield. That's Interstate 295, which connects Long 
Island and the Bronx via the Throgs Neck Bridge. 
Shortly, you'll see the two highways, like snakes, 
strike at each other across the water. They become 
one, forming a bridge. 

Check radar now and zoom in a notch closer. 
You'll see that the bridge is actually two bridges — 
the nearer one Throgs Neck and the farther one 
Bronx-Whitestone. The highway across the latter 
is Interstate 678. Continue to point toward the tip 
of the arrowhead (right now, beyond the bridges, 
it becomes a slot). 

A little farther on, try to spot Westchester County 
Airport out your right side window. 

Things will start shaping up now. Keep a lookout 
for an airport ahead, just a hair to the left of your 
course. It's La Guardia, named for a wonderfully 
pbdeish mayor (1934-1945) of New York City, Fio- 
rello H. La Guardia, who used to read the Sunday 
comics to kids over the radio. The airport is just 
beyond the Throgs Neck and Bronx-Whitestone 
bridges (those long highwaylike bridges you'll 
shortly fly over — toll bridges to the ordinary mor- 
tals below). 

Stay on your heading and let La Guardia slip by 
slightly to your left. As it does, there's a disk ac- 
cess and you're aimed at the heart of Manhattan. 

Take a look on radar and adjust zoom until you 
see that the water you're flying over takes a 45- 
degree turn to the left not far ahead. At that point, 
it becomes the East River. 

Turn with and track the river. If you've flown cer- 
tain earlier modes in this book with us, you know 
that the buildings on your right are, in order, the 
Empire State Building and the twin towers of the 




World Trade Center. The first bridge you see is [( 
the Queensboro Bridge. Directly under that bridge, 
but not visible in the simulation, is the southern (_) 
end of Roosevelt Island, a small strip of land that 

has become a New York City community on its 1 i 

own. And just beyond Roosevelt Island, though 
not visible even if you were standing on the river- 
bank, the Queens-Midtown Tunnel lopes under 
the river. 

Two more bridges lie ahead. The nearest one is 
the Williamsburg Bridge, and just beyond that, the 
river bends to the right and passes under the 
Manhattan Bridge. You might want to lose a bit of 
altitude to get a closer look. 

When you pass Manhattan Bridge — a 3-D fea- 
ture of the simulation — you're over Upper Bay, at 
the mouth of the Hudson River, with the tip of 
Manhattan to your immediate right and the Statue 
of Liberty probably visible as a dot in the bay. 
Worthy of mention is that you've also flown over, 
a moment after passing Manhattan Bridge, the 
famous Brooklyn Bridge, unseen in the simulation, 
but enshrined forever in the poetic inspiration of 
Thomas Wolfe who walked it often. (If you are in- 
terested, I can make you a deal on the bridge.) 

As you approach the middle of the bay, make a 
left turn to a heading of 175 degrees. If you lost 
altitude earlier, get back to 2000 now. 

The land to your left is Brooklyn, and to your 
right Staten Island. Beyond these are Lower Bay LJ 
and the Atlantic Ocean. 

When you're over Lower Bay, turn left again u 
and head due east. You'll be flying along the 
southern shoreline of Long Island. W 

The airport ahead to your left is John F. Ken- 
nedy International. As you fly past it, tune your 
NAV to Deer Park OMNI, 111.2, and set your OBI <, 
to fly directly to the station. 

Your destination is Republic Airport, about six 
miles this side of the OMNI. 

Since there's no tower in the simulation for 
Republic, call JFK on 119.1 and check the winds. 
If there are still none or if they're light, land on 
the runway of your choice. Runways are 1-19 and 

Alternative: If you just haven't had enough fly- 
ing for one morning, continue right up Long Is- 
land's southern coastline. It'll point you back to 
Block Island, and you'll be there in plenty of time 
for lunch. 






North Position: 21827 
East Position: 6410 
Altitude: 82 
Heading: 200 

Rudder: 32767 
Ailerons: 32767 

Elevators: 32767 
Time: 9:00 
Season: 3 — Summer 
Wind: 6 Kts, 200 


If you're sitting in a Cessna do not take any left 
side views. You're so close to the water you will 
splash into it, since for some strange reason the 
Microsoft simulator seems to check where you are 
looking, rather than where you are, in deciding 
whether or not to give you a drenching. (To pre- 
vent the splash, you could set east position to 
6409, but that would defeat our purpose.) In the 
Archer, you can look all around. 

This dynamic, geometric abstraction of grass, 
sea, and sky is no ordinary simulator scenic. 
You're in a very special place. A place pains- 
takingly carved for you from an otherwise feature- 
less and monotonous landscape. 

It's a grass strip, like the old days when pilots 
were wild-eyed daredevils, and any reasonably 
long stretch of grass or sandy beach would serve. 
Only the flying fools and a few kids who came 
out to watch them knew where it was. And how 
to get back to it. 

But this flying field (that's really what it should 
be called) is no ordinary strip of grass; it's not 
even in the United States. 

You are on your own private runway sur- 
rounded by a body of water called Juan de Fuca 
Strait. Precisely, you are at the southernmost tip 
of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. 
Juan de Fuca Strait is an inlet of the Pacific Ocean 
which flows for a hundred miles between Vancou- 
ver Island and the northwestern comer of the 
state of Washington. The Canadian-U.S. border is 
in the middle of the strait. 

It's easy to see the runway here, for which 
you're already exactly lined up, if you just imagine 
a right side which is a mirror image of the left. 
The water marks the left edge of the strip, and a 
similar, though imaginary, line on the right side of 
your windshield marks the right. 

Take a view directly to the rear (but not left rear, 
unless you want to see for yourself what I'm talk- 
ing about). Note that you're indeed right on the 
edge of the water. Out the right side, of course, 
it's all green. 

And before you start flying, take a look at your- 
self on radar. Zoom out until you see the distinct 
bend of the geography ahead. That's the length of 
the strip in relation to the strait, and you'll find 
it's plenty long enough. Zoom out three additional 
notches, and you'll see the shape of the Juan de 
Fuca. That's the United States across the way. One 
more notch (though it shows land which doesn't 
exist) gives you an idea of your relationship to the 
nearest U.S. airport, William R. Fairchild Inter- 
national at Port Angeles. 

You'll find you can tune three OMNI stations 
from here, even on the ground — Tatoosh, Bay 
View, and Paine. So you're not in any wilderness. 

Now why not fly the pattern a few times? Since 
it's your own strip, you can have any pattern you 
like. I fly a lefthand pattern with a pattern altitude 
of 1750. Do some takeoffs and landings on run- 
ways 2 and 20 and get the feel of the area. Don't 
forget to use radar to help yourself line up. It's a 
very distinct spot on the geography. 

As a suggestion, make your first takeoff a long 
one so that you'll have an idea of how far away 
the water is. Use no flaps. Before you add power 
for your takeoff run, give two quick strokes of up 
elevator. Then to start your run, use full power 
followed immediately by a four-notch power 
reduction (F2 followed by two F8s if you're flying 
the PC). Then use no controls until you're 


When the land slips away under your nose, take a 
look back. 

At some point, try a takeoff as above, but use only 
one quick stroke of up elevator (the Cessna ele- 
vator position indicator won't move), followed by 
full power and then eight notches of power reduc- 
tion (F2, then four F8s on PC). And wait. The sus- 
pense is awful, but you'll see how realistic your 
private flying field is. 

(Believe it or not, in the Cessna one stroke of 
elevator and power backed off six notches from 
full will use up all the grass, but will get you 
safely into the air — by a hair. Try it for thrills.) 

You can ink in your Canadian runway on your 
chart and think of it as a real place. You can give 
it whatever name you like. And you can fly to and 
from it from and to anywhere in the Seattle area. 

One final thought: Sometime, get into edit 
mode and change just the hour to something 
around midnight. You'll see that your private 
field's runway is marked as clearly as it is in the 

A return trip at night, too, is entirely possible. 

North Position: 17184 
East Position: 16690 
Altitude: 1600 
Heading: 180 
Airspeed: 120 
Throtde: 19400 

Rudder: 32767 
Ailerons: 32767 

Elevators: 32767 (IBM only) 
Elevators: 36863 (all except IBM) 
Time: 12:15 
Season: 4— Fall 
Wind: 5 Kts, 350 





Please read the entire text before beginning this [_j 


You're in a Meigs righthand pattern downwind for 
runway 36. You're over Lake Michigan at pattern LJ 
altitude, which is 1000 AGL nominal (you're at 
1008 AGL). A right turn, to a heading of 270, will 
put you on base, A second right turn, to a heading 
due north, will put you on final. Great chance 
here to fly the box, and keep flying it until you get 
the hang of it. 

It's no secret nor any surprise that the simulator 
is harder to land than a real airplane — in some 
ways. You don't have the natural depth percep- 
tion, visual clues and perspectives, and other real- 
world references that you have in an actual 
aircraft. Our microcomputers are simply not fast or 
sensitive enough to get our most subtle messages. 
What, in a real aircraft, is a little bit of pressure — 
with perhaps the thumb — to correct just a tiny bit 
seems to cause the simulator to overreact. 

However, we're flying a simulator, not a multi- 
thousand-dollar real machine (nor a multi-million- 
dollar simulator), and practice is the orUy way 
we'll conquer it. 

This mode will save you lots of time getting up 
there and into position, so you can concentrate on 
judging and timing your first turn, then judging 
and timing your second. Both good turns, let's 
hope, and blended smoothly with flap settings 
and pitch and power adjustments that put you LJ 
down right on the numbers. 




North Position: 21349 
East Position: 6655 
Altitude: 1840 
Pitch: 359 
Bank: 17 
Heading: 327 
Airspeed: 120 
Throtde: 19600 

Rudder: 32767 
Ailerons: 32767 

Elevators: 35292 (IBM only) 
Elevators: 37887 (all except IBM) 
Time: 16:11 
Season: 2 — Spring 
Wind: 5 Kts, 350 


Hold the bank until you see what looks like an 
airstrip, then take over at once and land the 

This unusual-looking airport becomes more un- 
usual as you get closer. 

Presently, you'll see that the runway — if it is a 
runway — is a blacktop with no centerline. The 
whole area between the white lines fills in. 

This landing will call for some skill, because 
your approach is not traditional. It's more of a 
barnstorming approach. At least it'll seem that 
way, since you've had no chance to get your 

The heading of the strip is 10 degrees and the 
elevation 496 (maybe that will help). 

Once you set her down, use radar and take a look 
around you. Where are you? 

And is this an airport? Taxi around a bit and 
look it over. If it's an airport, where's the center- 
line? Even the grass strips in the simulator have 
centerlines. And what's that big rectangle? It's cer- 
tainly not a building because it's as flat as the rest 
of the landscape. And if it's a fuel pump, where's 
the F? 

The "Interesting Topographical Features" sheet 
that comes with Flight Simulator II lists Lake 
Sammamish as one of the interesting topographi- 
cal features. The Microsoft manual doesn't men- 
tion Sammamish or interesting topographical 
features. And it says nothing about a new airport. 

Maybe it's an airport under construction? Or 
maybe it's an experiment of some kind. Could we 
have strayed into a top-secret military base? 

One thing is certain: It's not a town, because it's 
too narrow. It's not a road, because it doesn't go 
anywhere. And it's not a grass strip, because it's 
too black and hard. 

It looks exactly like a runway, with a fuel pump 
(simulator style), but without a centerlir\e. And 
with absolutely no fanfare. 

And I have some other news for you. The cur- 
rent FAA Seattle Sectional Aeronautical Chart 
doesn't show an airstrip here either. 

So what is this interesting topographical feature 
on the tip of Lake Sammamish? 

I leave you to figure it out. 





North Position: 21295 
East Position: 6477 
Altitude: 292 
Heading: 98 

Rudder: 32767 
Ailerons: 32767 

Elevators: 32767 
Time: 11:30 
Season: 1 — Winter 
Wind: 5 Kts, 330 


Very nice view of Mount Rainier across the wa- 
ter, isn't it? However, you paid dearly to attain 
this grandstand seat. 

Wherever in the world do you think you are? 

Perhaps if you get that annojdng splash, you're 
exhaling when you should be inhaling. Or per- 
haps you didn't check your weight and balance 

How can you be motionless on the ground and 
keep falling into the water? 

There is a way out, at least the splash part of it: 
Just get into radar mode. 

Now, once things seem to have settled down, 
you can use zoom and see what kind of predica- 
ment you got yourself into. 

Yes, this is a real runway. It's Tacoma Narrows 
in the Seattle area. Narrows is a good name for 
this place. Only an Olympic diving champ could 
feel at home out here. 

So, anyway, now try an out-the-windshield view 

Back to the drawing board? Or does the airplane 
know it's on the rvmway and not on the water? 

Apparently, the simulator looks a bit ahead of 
your aircraft to decide whether you're going to 
ditch or not. Because you're surely on this runway. 
And when you're in radar, the simulator must 
look down from on high, too, rather than out the 
windshield. Or something like that. 

Anyway, you're cleared for departure whenever 
you're ready. 

Honestly, you can turn around and take off on 
runway 35. So do it. But maybe you shouldn't 
look out the windshield until you have plenty of 
blacktop under your nosewheel. 

Two on an 

North Position: 17299 
East Position: 20983 
Altitude: 1300 
Heading: 181 
Airspeed: 121 
Throtde: 19455 

Rudder: 32767 
Ailerons: 32767 

Elevators: 36863 (except IBM) 
Elevators: 32767 (IBM only) 
Time: 8:15 
Season: 3 — Summer 
Wind: Kts, 



This majestic expanse of water is the Hudson [_j 
River. You're just where the simulator picks it up, 
Peekskill, New York. About 5 miles behind you is LJ 
the U.S. MUitary Academy at West Point, which is 
on the river. You are about 38 miles north of John U 
F. Kennedy International Airport. 

Follow the river. It has just widened at this point, 
after flowing a few hundred miles from its source 
farther north in the Adirondack Mountains. 

For the best vistas, use radar and your out-the- 
windshield view to fly about midriver. 

Tune your NAV to JFK OMNI, 115.9, which wUl 
provide you with a check on distances. About 37 
miles out, you should be able to spot Westchester 
County Airport ahead to your left. It's 7 or 8 miles 
east of the river. 

High altitude radar at about 32 to 33 nautical miles 
from JFK will show you Long Island Sound at the 
upper left of your screen, though it's about 25 
miles away. The highway along the Sound is 1-95. 

Twenty miles from JFK you'll spot our old 
friend La Guardia on the east side of the river, 
and after another mile or so you'll see Manhattan 
beginning to take shape. 

The first of three tall buildings you see is the 
Empire State Building, and the other two are the 
World Trade Center towers — all of which we've u 
seen from other angles in earlier modes. And the 
gradually enlarging white dot in the river proper U 
is, of course, the Statue of Liberty. 

When your DME shows about 16.5 miles, zoom U 
in with a radar view until the black shape of New 
York City appears. That patch of green in the cen- U 
ter is Central Park — a green relief for city dwell- ^ 
ers, with jogging and cycling paths, horse-drawn 


carriages for hire, and the famous Central Park 

About 14 or 15 miles from Kennedy, views out 
the left side will give you an excellent picture of 
downtown New York and the three featured 
buildings passing by. 

Keep your nose pointed straight at the Statue of 
Liberty. And why not start an approach right now: 
You're going to land this airplane on Ellis Island, 
right at the foot of the statue. (And while you're 
making your approach, see if you notice anything 
unusual about the Lady Liberty.) 

So pull your carb heat on, get into slow flight, 
and put on a notch of flaps. Point at Liberty just 
as if it were a runway. Presently the disk will be 
accessed, and you'll see where you're going. 
Elevation of Ellis Island is 430 feet. 

Make a full-flaps landing just to the right of the 
statue, as close to the near side of the island as 
you can manage. You probably won't use up even 
half the grass. 

] You can't see the statue too well from inside the 
cockpit and up this close. So taxi to some edge of 
the island, as close to the water as is safe, turn 
around, apply your brakes, and you'll see at least 
a reasonable portion of the base. (Too bad you 
can't get out the door!) 

When you've enjoyed the view (and checked carb 
heat off, elevator centered), taxi the aircraft to 
what you feel is your best position for a short field 
takeoff, then execute the takeoff using your best 
information. (Note that there is no wind.) Keep 
your brakes on until you have maximum rpm. 
When you're safely airborne, be sure to look back 
at the statue. Beautiful. 
See you at Kennedy. 





North Position: 17250 
East Position: 21327 
Altitude: 2500 

n Pitch: 


rn Heading: 21 

Airspeed: 122 

n Throtde: 19450 


Rudder: 32767 
Ailerons: 32767 

Elevators: 36863 (except IBM) 
Elevators: 32767 (IBM only) 
Time: 14:30 
Season: 3— Summer 
Wind: 6 Kts, 


You're over Long Island Sound, inbound for run- 
way 2 at Tweed-New Haven. 

But the tower advises you must stop short of 
the intersection, since workers are repairing a pot- 
hole exactly where the runways cross. "Clear to 
land if you can comply." 

"Roger, no problem," you say, with a non- 
chalance that indicates you've been jockeying air- 
planes around the sky for at least 20 years. But 
the way your knuckles go white on the yoke isn't 
too comforting. 

You'll see the strip ahead in a few minutes. 
You're going to wish it was absolutely straight 
ahead. But of course it isn't. The reason you wish 
it were straight ahead is because this is one of 
those runways that extend over the water. No 
landing on the grass here. The resultant splash 
would be worse than the dumph of a nosewheel 
in a pothole. 

So you're committed to getting lined up very 
precisely. You'd hate to have to go around, having 
convinced the tower that you started flying back 
when Eddie Rickenbacker threw a pigeon from his 
cockpit into an overcast to see if it got disoriented. 
(It did, so the story goes, and started flying 
reasonably only when it fell below the clouds and 
had visual reference to the ground.) 

Simulator runways do seem to dance around a 
lot, don't they? That "2.5-inch resolution" (of 
what?) the manual talks about often seems more 
like 2.5 miles. You think you're a little to the 
right, so you correct a little to the left, then you 
think you're a little to the left, so you.... 

Anyway, you can return to this mode anytime 
you feel like practicing to improve your precision. 
Or to see if maybe your precision improved by it- 
self while you weren't paying any attention to it. 

North Position: 21305 
East Position: 6508 
Altitude: 10000 
Pitch: 359 
Heading: 14 
Airspeed: 122 

Rudder: 32767 
Ailerons: 32767 

Elevators: 36863 (except IBM) 
Elevators: 32767 (IBM only) 
Time: 12:35 
Season: 4— Fall 
Wind: 15 Kts, 30 


Here you are, ten thousand feet over Seattle and 
your engine dies. (You may not use throttle!) 

Glad at least you have some altitude, hmmm? 
Chance to think. Time to use all your resources — 
radar, chart, out-the-windshield views, your flying 
skills, and judgment. 

Set her down safely at the airport of your 
choice, A landing on the grass somewhere or 
crossways on a runway or even on a city street is 
better than no landing at all— or than a ditching. 
Still, you're only a winner if you manage the run- 
way you decide on at the outset. 

Good luck. 

ousana nyes 

North Position: 21371 
East Position: 6481 
Altitude: 370 
Heading: 40 

Rudder: 32767 
Ailerons: 32767 

Elevators: 32767 
Time: 19:00 
Season: 1 — ^Winter 
Wind: 4 Kts, 330 


The area is Seattle, and the airport is Port Orchard 
Airport, Washington, on the west side of Puget 
Sound. You're in position to taxi onto runway 36 
for a night flight to Snohomish County Airport 
(Paine Field). 

Tune your NAV to the Paine VOR, 114.2, and 
your DME will show you the distance you'll be 

Also, go ahead and set yotir OBI to fly directly 
to the station. What heading will you take up 
when you've departed Port Orchard? 

Before you leave, get into radar and zoom out. 
The large body of water on three sides (though it 
looks like land) is the Sound, and the highways on 
the other side are Interstates 5 and 405. Interstate 
5 goes to Seattle and continues north. Interstate 
405 goes to Bellevue, which is across Lake Wash- 
ington from Seattle, and then joins up with 1-5. 

Your flight will take you across Puget Sound 
and over the northern outskirts of Seattle. The air- 
port is a few miles ahead and to the left of where 
the highways join. 

Take off when you're ready. Since your cruising 
altitude will be above 3000 feet, observe the 

Heading 0-179 degrees: altitude = odd thousands 
+ 500 

Heading 180-359 degrees: altitude = even thou- 
sands + 500 

So, cruise at 3500. 

After the disk access, you can see how 1-5 and 
1-405 merge ahead of you. They point the way 
(though it's rather difficult to separate them visu- 
ally from the coastline in the simulation). 

Hold your altitude and keep the needle 

When your DME reads about 20, tune Snohomish 
ATIS, 128.65, and see what's what. 

If the winds haven't shifted, they're probably 
landing on runway 29, so begin thinking about 
your approach. Assume a lefthand traffic pattern. 
If you're not familiar with it, the traffic pattern 
around a small airport can be visualized as a se- 
ries of 90-degree turns, creating a box. The active 
runway represents, of course, the heading for both 
takeoff and final approach, also called the upwind 
leg. After takeoff, the first 90-degree turn, whether 
left or right, puts you on the crosswind leg. The 
next 90-degree turn puts you on the downwind leg, 
and the next on the base leg. The last turn puts 
you on final (final approach). 

In the simulator, since we have no actual 
conversations with the tower (except for standard 
advisories and active runway information where 
available), I regard all airports as "small" airports 
and fly the small-airport traffic pattern. With simi- 
lar bravado, I decide whether they are flying a 
right- or lefthand pattern to suit myself. Then 
(sometimes, but certainly not always) I enter the 
pattern at a 45-degree angle with the imagined 
traffic. Or, depending on my heading, I simply 
squeeze myself onto whatever leg is convenient. 

There's a product available at most small air- 
ports called PDQ (there are other equivalent prod- 
ucts, I'm sure). It's a Visual Airport Guide 
consisting of three plastic pieces riveted together 
like a circular slide rule. PDQ allows you to 
visualize your aircraft heading, the runway head- 
ing, 45-degree entry angles, and the traffic pattern 
you're going to enter. What it does, essentially, is 
eliminate the math involved in deciding what 
headings put you on what legs, thus, simplifying 
your entry into a pattern. It answers very quickly 
questions like "what's base for runway 29?" 

Just happen to have that information right here. 

Base for a runway heading of 290 and a lefthand 
pattern is 20 degrees. So, since you're now head- 
ing somewhere in the vicinity of 6 degrees, think 
about a shallow right turn to base when the time 

When Snohomish is 17 to 18 miles ahead, it'll be- 
come visible on your windshield. Time to start 
planning your letdown. 

A high altitude radar view, even this far out, will 
show you the airport (the big airports get all the 
breaks in the simulator; sometimes it seems like 
the little ones never show up). 

The elevation at Snohomish is 603 feet. Pattern 
altitude (normally 800 to 1000 feet AGL) would 
thus be about 1400 indicated, minimum. Sounds 
okay for base leg. 

The FAA sectional shows Snohomish is about 
five miles north of the Interstate 5/405 junction, 
so plan your turn to base accordingly, using radar 
and/or right side views of the junction. 

You'd be well advised to get into classic approach 
configuration for this landing for several reasons. 
It's night. Runway 29 is the least conspicuous of 
the runways. You're tired. 

So, don't have too much speed; do have some 
flaps on base leg; watch for the depiction of the 
runway on radar; and, remember, it's going to be 
at 90 degrees to your heading. 

Take out-the-windshield views so that you always 
know where the airport is; take ever-closer-in ra- 
dar views until you know which runway you're 
bound for; don't get dazzled by the lights; note 
that Martha Lake strip is across the highway from 

— , the threshold of 29; don't forget the carb heat; try 

to have at least 1000 feet indicated when you turn 

r-) final; and don't wait too long to do that; and let's 

see, what else? Oh, yes— don't forget your um- 

r~\ brella. It might be raining in Snohomish. 

And once you're on the ground, have a look at 
all those lights — out the windshield and on radar. 







North Position: 17029 
East Position: 21073 
Altitude: 13 
Heading: 224 

Rudder: 32767 
Ailerons: 32767 

Elevators: 32767 
Time: 9:00 
Season: 2— Spring 
Wind: 6 Kts, 180 



Ever wonder what lies beyond the charts? What U 
happens if you fly 20, 30, 40 miles off the page? 

So have I. So this nice spring morning let's both uj 
find out. With your permission, I'll ride with you. 
I'll record the whole trip exactly as it happens (in U 
realtime, no less!), right on this and the ensuing 
pages, so we'll both have a record of it. 

We may be going nowhere, but at least let's 
leave in style. We're positioned for takeoff on run- 
way 22, left, at New York's John F. Kennedy 
International Airport. (Precisely, we're heading 
224 to 225 degrees. I know we're a bit off-center, 
but this is a wide runway.) 

Tune your NAV to the Kennedy VORTAC, 115.9, 
and set the flag to FROM, if it's not already read- 
ing that, so we'll have a distance reference. You 
don't have to center the needle, because we're go- 
ing to fly contact. 

The idea I have is to make a straight-out de- 
parture from Kennedy. Our takeoff will be over 
Jamaica Bay, and if we hold the 224-degree head- 
ing, we'll fly straight toward New Jersey's Sandy 
Hook, which you can see in the lower-left comer 
of the New York-Boston area chart. A turn di- 
rectly to the south as we approach Sandy Hook 
will point us straight down the New Jersey coast, 
with the seashore resorts on our right and the At- 
lantic Ocean on our left. 

Let's give it a whirl. Go ahead and take off. U 

We can see the water as soon as we have a hun- 
dred feet or so of altitude. And before the DME ^ 
reads one nautical mile, we can see — land, ho! |^ 

Let's level off at 3000. That seems like an op- , , 

timum altitude for our observations. ' — ' 



Radar views, from either high or low altitude, can 
be deceptive. For instatice, if we take a high alti- 
tude view over Lower Bay, which we reach a few 
minutes after takeoff, the Atlantic Ocean has 
turned to green grass. Either that or there's an aw- 
ful lot of seaweed out there. But in its own time 
the simulator develops what it wants to develop 
for us. As I scribe this, I have no idea whether it'll 
be grass from here on or not. Remember, while 
I'm writing this I'm experiencing it for the first 
time just like you. 

Well, there was just a disk access, wasn't there? 
The DME reads 7-odd nautical miles from Ken- 
nedy. Is that goodbye to everything? Or hello. 
New Jersey? The manual does say that the simula- 
tion covers 10,000 X 10,000 miles. Not in great 
detail, maybe. But I'll settle if I see a coastline and 
an Atlantic Ocean for 20 or 30 or 40 miles. 

I'm wondering what that little black dot is, left 
of center on the shoreline ahead. 

Now, suddenly (believe me, exactly as I write 
this), there's what looks like a city or a large air- 
port ahead. I haven't a clue as to what it is. The 
DME reads between 12 and 13. The heading is 
stUl 224. And we're at 3000. 

But it's a phantom. As suddenly as it appeared, 
it's gone. Did you see that? Was it Atlantis? A sea 
monster? A mother ship swooping in for 

Weil, the black dot's gone, too. 

At 21.6 from Kennedy, I have the dot in sight 
again, and I've come to a conclusion. It's simply 
one of those jagged shoreline points entering the 
simulation. Each one starts as a dot, I guess. Do 
you agree? 



, c 

Take a look on radar. Still nothing of interest. 

It occurs to me that we should be over land by 
now. In fact, we should have been over land 
about 10 miles ago. New Jersey is only about 17 
miles from Kennedy on this heading. Something is 


Turn left to a heading of 180. 

Switch in your radar and experiment some. 

There's a shoreline, all right, and we're flying 
alongside it. But toward what? More of that mas- 
sive seaweed. So thick you could cut it with a 
lawn mower. 

And look out the left side. More of the same. 
Unless we're looking at Spain there across the At- 
lantic. It's certainly not Long Island this far south. 

Try a view straight back. 

Now that makes some sense. That looks like 
where we've come from. Is it possible that if we 
flew TO rather than from JFK along the Jersey 
coast, we'd have more realism? 

But for the moment let's continue straight ahead 
and see if anything opens up. Let's fly south until 
the DME reads 40. 

Better yet, let's fly until we see if the seaweed 
ahead opens up. If you check radar, you'll see 
we're headed for a world of green. What'U happen 
when we cross that line of demarcation and leave 
the ocean behind us? 

Perhaps it's a new overseas highway Bruce 
Artwick has fashioned. 

One thing is sure, if it's earth, we should be able 
to land on it. Are you game? If you are, check ra- 
dar until you're sure you're over land, then set her 


down straight ahead. That's what I'm doing. 

A nice flat approach makes sense, because we 
have no idea of the altitude of this place. And 
zilch in the way of visual references. Below a thou- 
sand feet, try to set up a descent rate of 500 feet 
per minute or less, with a speed just above stall- 
ing. And simply wait, because you'll have no idea 
when you should flare. At least I don't think so. 

Now, 700...600...500...400...300...200— if it gets 
close to then perhaps it's right AT sea level, so 
you can flare after all— 100...75...50... 

Well, now, what do you think of that? That's 
what I call high-protein seaweed! 

Perhaps you want to quit now. Or maybe turn 
around and fly back up the coast to see if the 
perspective is different and the world more real 
going that way. That's what I'm going to do. 

But, first, let's true the altimeter and go into the 
edit mode to check what altitude we're actually 
sitting on. 
Hmmph! Must be low tide. 

My conclusion from this trip is that the part of 
the simulator world which isn't on the area charts 
is, ultimately, all green. A few miles or minutes 
beyond the edges of the charts is a Great Beyond 
of green. A green North Pole. A green Siberia. A 
green Indian Ocean. 

But I have a suggestion (submitted humbly in- 
deed): The Great Beyond should be blue. 

For blue is what this little aimless speck of dust 
in the infinity is and what it appears to be when 
seen from elsewhere. Blue. The blue of water. The 
pale blue of polar ice. The blue of distant moun- 
tains. The blue of nearly 140 million square miles 
of oceans, lakes, and waterways. 







a Log 

North Position: 17165 
East Position: 21167 
Altitude: 3000 
Heading: 56 
Airspeed: 122 
Throtde: 19455 

Rudder: 32767 
Ailerons: 32767 

Elevators: 32767 (IBM only) 
Elevators: 36863 (all except IBM) 
Time: 10:15 
Season: 4 — Fall 
Wind: 7 Kts, 300 

Add for this mode: 

Cloud Layer 1: Tops, 4000; Bottoms, 2400 


You were VFR when suddenly things got kind of 
cloudy. Don't worry. You just entered the over- 
cast, and you know you're about over Huntington 
Bay on the north shore of Long Island, inbound 
for Igor I. Sikorsky Memorial Airport in 

Tune your NAV to Bridgeport VOR, 108.8, and 
you'll see you're right on course and about 20 
miles out. 

Contact the Sikorski control tower on 120.9 to 
see where the bottom of the overcast is and what 
runway is active. 

Your request for a descent to 2000 is approved 
by the tower, so back off your power and get 
down there where you can see again. 

Once you have the Connecticut shoreline in 
sight, keep a lookout for the airport. Since the 
OMNI is right there, Sikorski should show up 
straight ahead on your course. It's right at the 
water's edge. 

When you're ready, a shallow right turn to a 
heading of 70 degrees will put you on base for 
runway 34. Field elevation is a mere ten feet. 

A few checks out the side; judicious application 
of pitch, power, and flaps; a nicely executed left 
turn — you'll be right on the money. 

Now doesn't that sound easy? 




North Position: 21414 
East Position: 6599 
Altitude: 1200 
Pitch: 358 
Bank: 344 
Heading: 348 
Airspeed: 109 
Throtde: 19455 (IBM only) 
Throtde: 17407 (all except IBM) 

Rudder: 32767 
Ailerons: 32767 

Elevators: 33279 (IBM only) 
Elevators: 37887 (all except IBM) 
Time 17:15 
Season: 4— Fall 
Wind: 3 Kts, 360 


As soon as you exit edit mode, take a 90-degree 
view out your left side. Directly off your wing tip, 
as the mode settles down, you'll see the Seattle 
Space Needle. And it'll pretty much stay there 
without your touching the controls. 

Apply a little left aileron to steepen the bank if it 
unsteepens. You may also need minor power 
adjustments to hold your altitude. 

Your aircraft is performing a shallow, slow- 
speed, wide-radius turn around a point (flying in a 
circle while keeping a specific landmark or target 
in view and in the same relative position). This is 
a very valuable maneuver to have in your rep- 
ertoire and is always included early in flight 
instruction curricula. It doesn't take much 
imagination to see how valuable this type of turn 
can be in everyday flying. 

You can almost see inside the restaurant, which 
is in the observation tower at the top of the needle. 
It's dinner time, and the patrons can't fail to no- 
tice your low-altitude shenanigans over the tops of 
their heads. 

After you've made a few circuits, and maybe 
watched the maneuver on radar, too, take over 

Experiment with the concept of the turn. Try a 
steeper bank and different pitch and power 
settings, the object being always to keep the nee- 
dle — the point — right where it is off your left 
wing tip. See if you can tighten the circle or 
change the perspective of your view. Practice until 
you feel comfortable with the maneuver. 

Straighten up, fly around, then come back and see 
if you can set up the turn yourself, but turning to 
the right this time. If you can, you'll have some- 
thing to celebrate at your own favorite cafe after 
you land. 

North Position: 17060 
East Position: 16584 
Altitude: 6000 
Heading: 43 

Airspeed: 127 (IBM only) 
Airspeed: 117 (all except IBM) 
Throtde: 25591 (IBM only) 

Throttle: 21495 (aU except IBM) 
Rudder: 32767 
Ailerons: 32767 

Elevators: 32767 (IBM only) 
Elevators: 37887 (aU except IBM) 
Tune: 10:00 
Season: 3 — Summer 
Wind: 6 Kts, 000 


Pointed toward Lake Michigan, in the general 
direction of Meigs, this is your practice mode for 
stalls and stunts. You're straight and level at a 
(relatively) safe altitude. 

You can try anything you want; then simply 
press the reset simulator key (Recall on the IBM) 
and try it again. And again. The mode will always 
get you back up to altitude (and out of any trouble 
you might get into). 

First, read, then try this stall: Cut your power 
completely. Then increase up elevator gradually, 
trying to achieve and maintain a slightly nose- 
high attitude. This will require more and more ele- 
vator. Eventually, your angle of attack will 
become too great (you'll hear the stall warning a 
few seconds before this happens), and the nose 
will drop rather abruptly below the horizon. 
You've stalled. 

Recover from the stall using down elevator until 
the elevator indicator is at its normal cruise po- 
sition, thus reducing your angle of attack. (This is 
comparable to, in an actual aircraft, eliminating 
back pressure so that the yoke returns to its nor- 
mal position.) 

After you've normalized the elevator, add full 
power until you have the usual horizon again. 
Then reduce power until the throttle indicator is at 
your normal cruise setting; reestablish straight and 
level flight. The less altitude lost during the stall, 
the better you performed the recovery. 

The preceding is called a normal power-off stall. 

First, read, then try this loop: Give full down ele- 
vator until you pin the airspeed indicator at maxi- 
mum. Smoothly (and not too quickly) add up 
elevator to the three-quarters-up position. When 
there is only the sky in view, apply full throttle 
and take a left or right side view. You'll see your- 

self flying toward the top of the loop, about to be- 
come inverted. Just before you're completely 
upside down (wings level with horizon), take a 
front view and see the earth upside down. When 
you see only ground, cut throttle completely. 
Then, when you see the horizon, add throttle and 
adjust elevator to resume normal flight. 

Quick summary (Loop from normal cruise): 
Full down elevator: Maximum speed 
Smoothly: Three-quarters-up elevator 
Sky only: Full throttle, side view 
Almost inverted: Front view 
Downside (earth only): Chop throttle 
See horizon: Add throttle, adjust elevator 

With some practice, you'll surely catch on. Then 
try mixing up the views. 
Fun, hmmm? 




North Position: 15402 
East Position: 5955 
Altitude: 296 
Heading: 190 

Add for this mode: 

Cloud Layer 2: Tops, 5000; Bottoms, 2000 
Cloud Layer 1: Tops, 1500; Bottoms, 300 

Rudder: 32767 
Ailerons: 32767 

Elevators: 32767 
Time: 7:45 
Season: 1 — Winter 
Wind: 2 kts, 180 


Be sure to check heading when you exit edit mode. 
And do not read this mode before you fly it. You'll 
spoil all the fun. 

This had to happen to you, on a day when even 
the birds are grounded. The whole Los Angeles 
area is socked in so bad not even the flags are 

But on Catalina Island — way out there in the 
Pacific Ocean, somewhere out there in this potato 
soup, a little golden-haired girl is desperately ill. 
She's been bitten by a rare tj^e of Pacific tick. 
Without a special serum available only here on 
the mainland, she may not live another 12 hours. 

No pilot in his right mind would dream of fly- 
ing serum to Catalina in weather like this. So they 
turned to you. 

And how could you refuse a little golden-haired 
girl the chance of life? 

Yes, you'd go. 

So here you are at El Monte Airport. (Regard 
your radar as disabled for this flight.) 

You know you're lined up okay for takeoff, be- 
cause you went out and got down on your hands 
and knees with a special fog flashlight to find the 
centerline. You're somewhere near it. You know 
the runway heading is 190, and how to take off, 
because you've done it on lots of sunny days. You 
know there's a litfle thousand-foot slot between 
the cloud layers, and that from 5000 feet on up 
the ceiling's unlimited. You also know that from 
1500 feet on down to 300 feet the overcast is 

You know still more. You know that Catalina 
has Santa Catalina OMNI, and you can tune it on 
111.4. In addition, you know that there are two 
ambulances waiting for you on the island, though 
you can't imagine why they'd have two. And, fi- 
nally, you know that the litfle golden-haired girl 

has said she'd even give you her dolly if you ever 
get there with the serum. 

So, climb in the airplane. If you can find the door. 
(This stuff's so thick even the density altitude 
must have doubled.) 

Set your NAV to Santa Catalina OMNI and get a 
heading. (Almost the runway heading, hmm? 
Every little bit helps.) 

Take off in the normal manner. (The altimeter 
tells you that you did, else who'd ever know?) If 
things seem a little bleak, note that nice blue over 
the red on the artificial horizon. 

You'll be looking for that thousand-foot slot be- 
tween the layers. But will you see it? 

When you do see it, it isn't all that inviting after 
all. The deepest blue you ever saw. 

Might as well climb on up to five. Ah, now that's a 
blue! Why not level off at 5500? This part of the 
ride, at least, will be nifty. 

Now, as the miles tick by, you can start think- 
ing about what you'll do when you get to Cat- 
alina. One thing is sure: If it's as socked in as El 
Monte, you'll never find the runway. So what are 
you doing up here in the first place? Even Spencer 
Tracy wouldn't get himself in a mess like this. 

Should you turn around and go back? But to 
what? Takeoff is one thing. Landing is a whole 
other ball game. Why are you here? Where's your 
common sense? Where's your logic? Do you have 
even a prayer of getting out of this thing alive? 

What to do when you get to Catalina? What a 
joke. You might as well be going to Tibet. 

Well, let's figure how to make the best of a 
really rotten situation. 


We're on the beam for Catalina. At the very 
worst, we might make a blind landing wherever 
on the island we happen to come down. Just let 
down and follow the needle and make a normal 
landing in the soup, just about at zero DME. We'd 
almost surely hit — I mean reach — the island if we 
plan on zero DME. That's the ace-in-the-hole. 

Why not let down now and fly in the black slot? 
Just above the clouds. We'll be at a lower altitude 
and can time the letdown easier. Black sky's no 
worse than blue sky in this monstrosity. Yes, de- 
scend to 1900. 

Keep that needle centered. Last thing you want 
to do is get off course. Want to head strrrraight for 
that island as a bare minimum. 

Come to think of it, now, if Catalina's at 1602 
feet, and we're at 1900, we're only about 300 feet 
above Catalina's elevation. Now isn't that interest- 
ing! That means if this altitude-clouds thing is le- 
git, we ought to be able to see Catalina sticking up 
out of the clouds. The tops of the bottom layer of 
clouds are below the Catalina elevation. 

So, if the island's sitting there above the clouds, 
we go ahead and make a landing. 

And if the airport isn't sticking up out of the 
clouds when we're a few miles out, the only thing 
to do is make our best possible slow landing 
straight ahead, blind, and on our heading. And 
hope. At zero DME or as close to that as possible. 

And those, dear reader, are the best possible 
solutions in light of all the circumstances. 

Please believe I wouldn't ask you to do any- 
thing I wouldn't do. And I assure you I made ex- 
actly the flight described herein. What's more, 
without looking at radar until 1 was on the 
ground, I landed safely on Catalina (okay, yeah, 
the island) the first time I made the flight. And I 
can prove it. A little golden-haired girl is alive to- 
day solely because of my heroism. 

Over on the 

North Position: 17901 

Rudder: 32767 


East Position: 21856 

Ailerons: 32767 

Altitude: 23 




Elevators: 32767 


Time: 14:19 


Heading: 330 

Season: 2 — Spring 


Wind: 3 Kts, 300 





Your takeoff will be from runway 33 at Boston's 
Logan Airport, named for General Edward Law- 
rence Logan. (Who, you ask, was General Edward 
Lawrence Logan? For that piece of triva you'll 
have to wait till the end of this flight.) 

This is the shortest runway at Logan, so you 
can sit there for a few minutes without worrying 
about jets whooshing over your head and spray- 
ing your plane with kerosene. 

Go into radar and zoom out until you have the 
upper-left comer of a rectangle of blue behind you 
and a little green on the left of your screen. The 
blue is a piece of Boston Harbor, where the water 
has tasted a bit like tea for a couple of hundred 
years (some of the tea from the party was actually 
preserved and is on display in Boston's Old State 

The airport is a bit northeast of Boston center. 
Coming from Boston, you'd have taken Interstate 
93, which is the highway snaking up on your left, 
and then a tunnel under a little finger of water 
which doesn't show on radar. The highway di- 
rectly ahead of you is U.S. 1, which connects with 
1-93 at about eleven o'clock from your position. 
The highway farther west is 1-95, which traverses 
the east coast from Maine to Florida. 

Tune your NAV to Boston VORTAC, 112.7, and 
set the OBI to read FROM on the runway heading. 
Your DME, which now reads about 0.6 nautical 
miles, will serve us as a mutual distance reference. 

When you're ready, take off and climb straight out 
to about 1000 feet. Then, still climbing, do the 
better part of a 180 to the left, rolling out so that a 
green patch pointing into Massachusetts Bay is 
straight ahead of you. 
Level off at 3000. 

As you fly, go into radar and zoom out until you 
see a piece of land ahead that looks like the nose 
of a Concorde on final. 

Before you leave radar, use a little left aileron to 
point your aircraft toward the tip of the big bird's 
nose. You'll probably find you're heading some- 
where in the general vicinity of 130, but the exact 
number isn't at all critical. 

You'll have nothing but the horizon where sky 
meets ocean for awhile, but keep flying. 

When your DME reads around 14 miles, a bar 
of green will intermittently spring part way across 
your windshield from the right, paralleling the ho- 
rizon. After popping in and out a few times, it'll 
pop in and stay put. The tip of it will be to the 
right of your course, but don't change course. Do, 
however, check radar once in awhile to see that 
you're still heading for the nose of the Concorde. 

At about 20 miles out, check radar and zoom in 
another notch. The nose will rear up like some- 
thing bit the bird. 

After several more miles, the end of the bar 
paralleling the horizon (after a few tentative 
strikes) will seem to break off and form an island. 
Then it'll join up with itself again and be two ad- 
jacent bars. While this happens, the bars will 
move closer to the center of your windshield, too. 
This little episode will repeat itself as you fly. 
You're simply seeing more and more of the land- 
fall, which is Cape Cod. 

At about 34 miles out, zoom in another notch on 
your radar and again check that you're pointed to- 
ward the tip of the peninsula. As your DME 
creeps toward 37 miles, the tip should be just 
about in the center of your windshield. Just when 
it appears there depends on how exactly you're 
flying up the nose of the big bird. 

At 37 miles out, at any rate, back off your throttle 
a few notches to lose some altitude. 

What your aircraft is pointed at is the extreme 
tip of Cape Cod, and of the state of Massachu- 
setts. The very tip itself has a name: Race Point. 
Tiny, desolate, and almost surrounded by ocean. 
Race Point is a wind-whipped, lonely promontory, 
where, as Thoreau said, "All America is at your 

Two miles southeast of Race Point is a fishing 
town with a most interesting history: Province- 
town, Massachusetts. 

As you continue your descent, give a touch of 
right aileron so that you're aimed just a little bit to 
the right of Race Point. This will take you directly 
over Provincetown. 

You won't see it in the simulation, but you're 
also going to fly over a hill, called Monument Hill 
because there's a tall monument there. In a mo- 
ment, we'll find out what it's a monument about. 

As the landfall begins to slip under your nose, 
take a view directly below you, not a radar view, 
but a ground view, which at this moment shows 
you not ground, but the water you're flying over. 

Now immediately rest your finger on, and be 
ready to press, P for Pause. Then, when land ap- 
pears directly below you, press the P. 

What you're looking down at is a very historic 
piece of coastline. For, on the stretch of beach be- 
low you, on November 11, 1620, the Pilgrims 
from the Mayflower made their first landing. And 
just offshore, in the cabin of the ship (and, one 
might say, in their first act of chauvinism on this 
side of the Atlantic), the male passengers of the 
Mayflower signed the Mayflower Compact, nam- 

ing themselves and their families a body politic 
and establishing a local government. 

The monument on Monument Hill in Province- 
town is, of course, a memorial to the Pilgrims. 

Unpause when you're ready, and fly back either 
to Logan International or, if you feel like it, down 
to Martha's Vineyard. In either case. Pilgrim or 
not, demand an excellent landing of thyself. 

For you triva fans: Logan International Airport 
is named for General Edward Lawrence Logan. 
General Logan held various offices in Boston, but 
is best known for his work on behalf of the poor 
and for his military leadership in the Spanish- 
American War and World War I. His combination 
of civic work and military activities led to the air- 
port being named for him. He died in 1939. 





North Position: 15303 
East Position: 6041 
Altitude: 3392 
Heading: 139 
Airspeed: 118 
Throttle: 21503 

Rudder: 32767 
Ailerons: 32767 

Elevators: 32767 (IBM only) 
Elevators: 36863 (all except IBM) 
Time: 22:11 
Season: 3 — Summer 
Wind: 8 Kts, 180 


The phenomenon described below was discovered by 
the author using Microsoft's Flight Simulator with 
an IBM PC. It seems to have no counterpart in the 
SubLogic simulators, unless, of course, you find one. 
Otherwise, find a friend with a Cessna so that you 
can experience this adventure. —Editor 

Strange apparition in the night sky. Don't touch 
the controls. Wait and see what develops from 
this transparent geodesic of the gods, this fantasia 
of devil's triangles. 

See the fantastic transposition into gold. Sure 
enough, the devil is behind this celestial alchemy, 
this twisted travesty on reality. And what is the 
roseate river beyond the shape? 

Fly on. 

Now like a giant bug awaiting its prey. Now 
like a baited web to entrance and entrap. And 
again like the closing moments of a raging sunset 
on a lonely sand dune. 

Perhaps we are extremely far from this entity. In- 
deed, a look out the right front shows us what may 
be a giant space station that a ship has lately left, 
with its fiery trail still suspended in the night sky. 

Watch the time carefully. We may be in a time 

At 22:16 exactly, go into radar. Zoom out once, 
twice, three times. And three times more. 

Yes, we are in a black something. We're not fly- 
ing toward it, but are a part of it. We are, in fact, 
inside a pyramid. We have somehow entered it, 
and we are flying toward the other side. And it is 
infinitely more massive than it looks from inside. 
As for steepness, consider what your altimeter 
tells you. 

Yet, when and how and where did we enter this 
strange abstraction? We seemed to be outside it 
and heading toward it, when suddenly it changed 

to its golden outline and turned inward on itself. 
And took us with it. 

Now back to out-the-windshield and, yes, we are 
aiming for the stream of light beyond the far wall 
of this translucent lunacy. To what? From what? 

Is civilization out there ahead of us? Where the 
rose line streaks across the sky? And if so, what 
kind of civilization? 

When the last vestige, the final fragment, of this 
structure you have passed through disappears off 
your windshield, I suggest you go no farther. In- 
stead, at exactly 22:22:22, take a look behind you 
to confirm what you have done. Then abort. Exit 
to edit mode. Choose another mode. Shut down 
for the night. Something. But fly no farther. 





North Position: 14974 
East Position: 6098 
Altitude: 28 
Heading: 243 

Rudder: 32767 
Ailerons: 32767 

Elevators: 32767 
Time: 23:00 
Season: 3 — Summer 
Wind: 4 Kts, 210 


There are these blue runways in the IBM version 
of the simulator. I prefer to think they're moonlit. 
I like them because they're easier to spot from the 
air and somehow seem more realistic. Perhaps 
they are a later development of the constantly 
changing simulation. Maybe someday we'll even 
see a paved JFK Airport in New York. 0FK is, after 
all, not exactly one of your hometown grass 

Whether in an Archer or Cessna, you're in good 
position to get lined up for runway 24, here at 
Oceanside Municipal in California, though in the 
SubLogic version only one side of the runway has 
its lights working. Your takeoff will be over the 
ocean or, to be exact, the Gulf of Santa Catalina. 
You're all gassed up for a night flight to another 
blue-runway airport. El Monte, northeast of Los 
Angeles. You've met El Monte before in this book, 
but not at night. 

Before you taxi out (Archer pilots are already 
there; check the position on the radar), tune your 
NAV to Seal Beach VOR, 115.7. You may be too 
far out of range to get a heading, but the DME 
will give you a distance readout. 

You can tell, using your chart and a straight- 
edge, that a course of 300 degrees will take you 
toward Seal Beach, so you'll fly that heading until 
you pick up the station. 

Plan to turn right to your heading as you pass 
through 1500. Your cruise altitude will be 4500. 
Ready when you are. 

Taxi into position and take off. After you get your 
exact heading, you're right over the coasfline all 
the way to the Seal Beach OMNI. The road bend- 
ing in from your left toward all those lights is 
Interstate 15. The highway more or less parallel- 
ing the coast is Interstate 5. 

The first city on your route is Santa Ana, where 
there's an airport curiously named after John 
Wayne, otherwise, Orange County Airport. 

You may want to tune in the Duke's tower for a 
weather check on 126.0. 

Adjust your OBI as you fly, and you'll see (if 
you're heading 300) that it agrees with your 

The next big metropolitan area is, of course, Los 
Angeles. But the airport you see almost straight 
ahead, at about 25 miles from the Seal Beach 
VOR, isn't Los Angeles International. It's 
Meadowlark. Watch for its beacon. Your heading 
should take you directly over the runway. 

El Monte Airport is north of Seal Beach VOR 
and bears almost exactly on the 346-degree radial. 
So as you approach Meadowlark, plan to fly a 
FROM course on that radial from Seal Beach. 

El Monte is roughly 14 nautical miles from the 
OMNI station, and its elevation is 296 feet. So 
plan your letdown and approach accordingly. You 
should be in visual contact slightly more than 10 
miles from Seal Beach. And you'll soon see it's 
blue as promised. 

El Monte's runway numbers are 19 and 1. So 
now on which end of the moonlit strip will you 
land, the near one or the far one? 

What, you forgot the wind direction? Shame! 




North Position: 21377 
East Position: 6617 
Altitude: 1289 
Heading: 140 
Airspeed: 112 
Throtde: 19455 

Rudder: 32767 
Ailerons: 32767 

Elevators: 32767 (IBM only) 
Elevators: 36863 (all except IBM) 
Time: 13:30 
Season: 4 — FaU 
Wind: 8 Kts, 130 


Here's a good setup for practicing landings — a 
picturesque final that needs you to add the touch 
of class. 

You're approaching runway 15 at Renton Munic- 
ipal, at the southern tip of Lake Washington. Ren- 
ton is a dty southeast of Seattle, population 30,612 
before your arrival. Your approach is over Mercer 
Island, with Mount Rainier on the horizon. 

You can make a normal landing, of course. Or you 
can practice touch and go, a popular training 
maneuver in which you make a flaps-down land- 
ing, and as soon as you're definitely on the 
ground, adjust elevator, flaps, power, and so on, 
and take off again, straight ahead. This obviates 
having to taxi back the length of the strip, wait 
your turn, and go through the whole takeoff 
procedure again. When you're renting an airplane, 
those are precious minutes. And since landing is 
the maneuver students usually need the most 
practice in, touch and go gets you more for your 

Remember to use carburetor heat when you cut 
back your power on final. It prevents carburetor 
icing, which can cause engine failure. There's no 
reason not to leave the carb heat on all the way 
down. As old-time instructors say, "When in 
doubt, pull it out." (Carb heat is normally a push- 
pull control, which applies heat in the pulled-out 

Then, of course, remember that taking off the 
carb heat is part of getting ready to go after you 
touch, else you won't have full engine rpm (you'll 
hear and see the rpm drop when you apply heat 
and pick up when you remove it). 

Remember to take off your flaps, too — and most 
important, to neutralize your elevators, which are 

probably almost all the way up when you touch 
down (or should be). 

To add still more spice, or at least variety, to 
this landing, set a nighttime hour. Just go into edit 
mode and change the 13 to 23 before you fly the 

You have an alternative to making a landing, of 
course, if things don't look right— going around, 
that is, adding power, taking off flaps, and so 
forth, before you touch down, and then flying 
around the pattern to try another approach. 

One last note: When you touch and go, the idea 
is to fly the pattern for as many takeoffs and land- 
ings as you feel like making. Or until your money 
runs out. 





North Position: 17083 

East Position: 20993 
r- ? ^titude: 17 

j— I Bank: 

Heading: 45 
(— ! Airspeed: 



' .1 

( \ 

Rudder: 32767 
Ailerons: 32767 

Elevators: 32767 
Time: 9:11 
Season: 2 — Spring 
Wind: 4 Kts, 230 





While you're looking straight ahead out your wind- i_J 

shield, and without consulting any references, jot 

down a guess or so as to where you are. !_J 

The title gives you a clue. Here are a few others: 
You're somewhere in the area covered by your 
New York-Boston chart. You're on the ground, but 
you're not at an airport. You're not supposed to be 
where you are, even though it's a public place. 

WhUe you're guessing, look out anywhere ex- 
cept straight behind you. That's the last resort. 
Look out both sides, at all angles. Look down. 

Then, when you give up or think you've 
guessed it, look behind you. 

Sure enough. 

Now, before the police arrive on the scene, make 
an exit. Note that the wind is at your back, so per- 
haps you'd best turn around for your takeoff. 
Then, just take off normally. Grass makes a great 
strip. But watch out for bicyclists and other 

Enjoy a little flight around the landmarks and 
then head for the nearest airport. 



North Position: 17194 
East Position: 16663 
Altitude: 2190 (IBM only) 
Altitude: 2255 (all except IBM) 
Pitch: 359 

Heading: 14 (IBM only) 
Heading: 15 (all except IBM) 
Airspeed: 142 (IBM only) 
Airspeed: 121 (all except IBM) 

Throtde: 32767 (IBM only) 
Throtde: 22527 (aU except IBM) 
Rudder: 32767 
Ailerons: 32767 

Elevators: 29951 (IBM only) 
Elevators: 36863 (all except IBM) 
Time: 12:08 
Season: 3 — Summer 
Wind: Kts, 000 


Don't touch the controls immediately. Instead, as- 
sess the situation. Decide if you should touch the 

Are you going to hit the John Hancock Build- 
ing? Or are you going to fly safely over it? 

Be sure the simulator has settled down and you 
have the true picture. Look at your instruments. 
Use your best judgment. 

If you think you'll fly safely over the top in the 
configuration you're in, don't touch anything. Ex- 
cept perhaps to set up a down view to see the 
building pass under you. 

On the other hand, if you think you're going to 
hit the building, take corrective action before you 
get there. 

Of course, unless you have super judgment, if 
you correct to save your skin, you'll never know 
whether you needed to, will you? And only one 
way to find out for sure, isn't there? 


North Position: 21526 
East Position: 6666 
Altitude: 603 
Heading: 180 

Rudder: 32767 
Ailerons: 32767 

Elevators: 32767 
Time: 10:30 
Season: 3 — Summer 
Wind: 4 Kts, 140 


Runway 20 at Snohomish County Airport (Paine 
Field), Everett, Washington, is the smallest of the 
three strips. But plenty long enough to launch us 
on a nice sightseeing tour of one of the simulator's 
most scenic water areas — Puget Sound. 

Before you taxi into position, tune your NAV to 
Paine VOR, 114.2, and set the OBI to the runway 
heading, 200, so we'll have a common distance 
reference. Your DME will read 0.6 nautical miles. 
(You'll readily see that there's a ten-degree error 
in the numbers for this runway on your simulator 

Zoom out on radar until you see the Sound on 
your right and a highway far to the left. The high- 
way is Interstate 5. We'll take off and fly straight 
on to the center of the Sound. 

Now zoom in until you have good reference for 
the runway, just ahead of you. 

Taxi out, get lined up heading 200, and take off as 
soon as you're ready. Climb straight out and level 
off at 2000. 

When your DME reads 3.7, turn left to a head- 
ing of 170. You're now looking and fl5dng down 
Puget Sound, toward Seattle center. 

At about 5.5 miles, go into radar and zoom out 
until you see a second highway south, forking off 
from Interstate 5 to skirt the eastern side of Lake 
Washington (about eleven o'clock from your po- 
sition). That highway is Interstate 405 to Bellevue 
and Renton. The land jutting out on the western 
side of the Sound is Point Jefferson, which is just 
slightly east of Port Madison Indian Reservation 
and a few miles from the grave of Chief Seattle of 
the Suquamish tribe. 


If you take a right-front view at about 6.8 miles, 
you'll be looking directly into the body of water 
called Port Madison and toward the site of the 
Chief's grave on its banks. 

A left front view will show you the northern 
area of Lake Washington and the network of high- 
ways serving Seattle. 

At about 15 miles take another look out the left 
front and you'll see the Space Needle, which we 
encountered in an earlier chapter. That's at Seattle 
center. As it passes, look directly out the left side 
and you'll see two bridges crossing Lake Wash- 
ington. The University of Washington is just north 
of the first one, and Seattle University just north 
of the second. The second bridge touches down 
on Mercer Island and continues as Interstate 90 all 
the way west to Spokane and beyond. The moun- 
tains in the background are part of the Cascade 
range, which stretches from top to bottom of the 
state, and includes Mount Rainier, which is about 
on the horizon. 

The Cascade range confines most of the rain in 
the northwestern part of the state to the Puget 
Sound area, which is why this area is so green — 
and has so many waterways, bays, and islands. 

When your DME reads about 21 miles, turn left 
ten degrees and head 160. 

A few miles later, go into radar and adjust zoom 
until you see a point ahead of you where the 
Sound narrows and bends to the right. You'll be 
able to see this point out your windshield, now or 

Aim your aircraft toward it. 

What looks like an airport developing ahead of 
you is exactly that. And if you've flown other 


modes in this book, you've been there before: Ta- 
coma Narrows. Remember the runway that reaches 
right out into the water? 

However, Tacoma Narrows isn't our destination 
this time. Plan to fly around the point and out 
over the bay. When radar shows you're beyond 
the point, turn right to head approximately 222, or 
whatever course takes you toward the next narrow 
passage of water, with another bay beyond that. 
Radar will help you line up if you have trouble 
spotting it. 

Now tune Olympia VORTAC on 113.4 and get 
a heading direct to Olympia Airport. You'll find 
you're approximately 16 to 19 miles out. Call the 
tower on 124.4 and find out which way they're 
landing. Chances are it's on runway 17. And you 
probably have the airport in sight. 

Elevation at Olympia is 206 feet. A bit of ju- 
dicious aileron work should get you lined up for a 
straight-in approach without much trouble. And 
you'll have seen all of Puget Sound in about 45 

Happy landings. 

North Position: 15411 
East Position: 5747 
Altitude: 2000 
Heading: 150 
Airspeed: 114 
Throttle: 20479 

Rudder: 32767 
Ailerons: 32767 

Elevators: 32767 (IBM only) 
Elevators: 36863 (all except IBM) 
Time: 1:15 
Season: 3 — Summer 
Wind: 3 Kts, 60 


You're over Santa Monica Bay in southern Califor- 
nia, on base leg for runway 6L at Los Angeles 

It's a beautiful night, and the view out your left 
side is a colorful one. You can pick out the run- 
way at Santa Monica Municipal, and just south of 
that is Marina del Rey. 

You'll want to get into approach configuration 
now, and start your turn to final about opposite 
the marina, because the runway is only a mile be- 
low the inlet. Your inbound heading will be 67 
degrees (the runway is erroneously numbered). 
You're far enough out over the water (about seven 
or eight miles) to get lined up nice and straight. 
Elevation at LAX is 126. You can tune the VOR 
there on 113.6 if you like. And the tower fre- 
quency is 133.8. 

The runway you're bound for is the leftmost 
straight line you'll see on final. It and its compan- 
ion runway look like one wide strip, but they're 
not. A few miles off the end of the runway you'll 
see the lights around the marina. Then after the 
disk access, the runway gets outlined and all kinds 
of lights brighten your approach. 

This mode is a good one to sharpen up your 
night perception and your approach precision. Get 
it down real fine and you might even want to try 
a nighttime touch and go. 

North Position: 14758 
East Position: 6106 
Altitude: 15 
Heading: 9 

Rudder: 32767 
Ailerons: 32767 

Elevators: 32767 
Time: 13:30 
Season: 1 — Winter 
Wind 415 Kts, 300 (415 Kts = 
15 Kts + Turbulence Factor 4)* 

*// turbulence is not implemented in your version of the simu- 
lator, set wind to 4 Kts and ignore turbulence commentary. 



Add for this mode: 

Cloud Layer 2: Tops, 6000; Bottoms, 5000 
Cloud Layer 1: Tops, 2000; Bottoms, 1500 
Shear Zone Altitude 1: 3000 

Not the best possible day for it, but you'll be mak- 
ing a trip up the southern coast of California, from 
San Diego's International Airport (Lindbergh 
Field) to Fallbrook Community Airpark, about 40 
miles north. Fallbrook is a city (population 9000) 
just west of Interstate 15. 

You're on the taxiway for runway 31. Go into ra- 
dar and zoom until you can see the runway num- 
bers ahead. 

Call the tower on 134.8. They'll advise you of the 
ceiling. But not of the turbulence. You've heard 
other pilots reporting that. Anyway, it shouldn't 
be too bad (the factor is 4 of a possible 9). 

Tune your NAV to Mission Bay VOR, 117.8, 
and set your OBI to intersect the 346-degree radial 
after you fly past the station, which will be a few 
minutes after you're airborne. 

Zoom your radar out to a high altitude view so 
that you see Mission Bay behind your aircraft, to- 
gether with most of the San Diego metropolitan 
area. Though it isn't featured in the simulation, 
there's a U.S. Naval Air Station across the bay on 
a little nub of land called North Island. And 
there's a Naval Training Center a few miles to 
your left. So watch out for navy jets. 

The highway right off your nose is Interstate 5, 
and it's approximately paralleled by Interstate 805. 
Where they meet on the lower right of your 
screen is just about Tijuana, Mexico. (Inter- 
national, hmm?) 



Continue taxiing, line up on the runway, and take 
off. Plan to cruise at 4500, between the cloud layers. 
And get on the 346 radial as soon as you have a 
FROM reading on your VOR indicator. 

Wow! If this turbulence factor is 4, what's a 9? 
Thought this would be an easy flight, didn't you? 

Fifty miles of this!? And weather on top of 
everything else. What in the world is so important 
that you just have to do at Fallbrook? 

Will it ease off when we stop climbing? 

Whatever you do, don't let that turbulence flip 
you over (it can). 

Then, ah-h-h. Above 3000. Ah-h-h! Glass. A 
mere. Serenity. Bliss. So that's what shear altitude 
does. The wind and turbulence go from the sur- 
face to the shear zone altitude. Then both the 
wind and the turbulence quit. Lovely. 

When your OBI indicates FROM, start flying to 
intersect the 346 radial. You were probably buf- 
feted off your takeoff heading, and perhaps you're 
a bit disoriented. Remember, you can use the in- 
dicator to find out what radial you are on, if the 
needle is off the scale. Then you'll know which 
way to turn to intersect the radial you want. And 
ultimately, fly the needle (turn toward the needle). 
When the needle is centered, with your heading 
on the course selector, at that moment you're on 
the radial, so turn directly to the selected heading. 
You can, of course, anticipate it with a little prac- 
tice. If you find, once you get on the radial, that 
the needle keeps moving to the left or right, cor- 
rect your heading accordingly until it stays put. 
Just because your heading is 346 doesn't mean 
you'll stay on the 346 radial. Your nose could be 
pointed 330 or 360 or anywhere in between. 
You're only on the 346 radial if the OBI needle is 
centered on that heading. The culprit, of course, is 
the wind. 



When you're settled down, at your altitude and on ^ 
your heading, take a look at radar. You're pointed 
a bit inland. The metropolitan area ahead of you l_i 
is Oceanside, California. 

When your DME reads about 19.5 miles, Li 
adjust your radar to spot the city of Carlsbad's 
McClellan-Palomar runway to your left (nice how 
radar penetrates right through the overcast, isn't it?). 

When you're 25 or 30 miles out from Mission Bay 
VOR, you might as well face the fact that you 
have to let down and make a landing in all that 
turbulence. Because, of course, the turbulence 
didn't go away below you. Where would it go? 

Fallbrook's elevation is 708 feet, and the run- 
way you're supposed to land on is 36. 

As you descend through the overcast, your in- 
struments are all you have. So don't even consider 
the possibility that they're wrong. At such times, 
they're right even if they're wrong, because your 
instincts are worse than the worst instruments. In 
fact, in this stuff there's no such thing as instinct. 
Or seat of the pants, either. Just look at that arti- 
ficial horizon dance! 

The ground comes into view at 1500. So try to 
stay on (or get back to) that heading of 346. 

Won't you be glad when this turkey's on the 
ground? Anywhere on the ground! 

If you happen to see a black (orange on the 
IBM) mountain, the runway's somewhere this side 
of it. By the same token, if you happen to see a 

runway, there's a black mountain somewhere the i ( 

other side of it. 

If you land even close to the runway at LJ 
Fallbrook, you can be very proud of yourself. 

And it you don't, so what? Who ever heard of a 
black (or orange) mountain anyway? , , 


North Position: 17642 
East Position: 21351 
Altitude: 174 
Heading: 180 

Rudder: 32767 
Ailerons: 32767 

Elevators: 32767 
Time: 5:25 
Season: 3 — Summer 
Wind: 7 Kts, 165 


Daylight is still a few minutes away as you pre- 
pare to depart runway 19 at Bradley International, 
Windsor Locks, Connecticut. 

You're out early because you're going on a long 
trip — not in terms of flying time, but of time itself. 
In a sense, you're going to fly back through it. 
Also, it's a Saturday, and you don't want to waste 
any of your precious weekend. 

Tune your NAV to Madison VOR, 110.4, and set 
the course selector to 196 before your departure. 

Take off when you're set, and climb out on the 
190-degree runway heading. As you pass through 
1000, turn slightly right to exactly 196. Level off 
at 2500. 

When you have the altitude and daylight, switch 
on radar and zoom out until you see a little wedge 
of Long Island Sound ahead. The highway, the 
only one you see, is Interstate 91. 

Back to your out-the-windshield view, the air- 
port ahead, just east of 1-91, is Hartford-Brainard. 
And now you can see Long Island Sound, even 
though it's some 30 miles away. 

Take a look behind at the airport you just left. 

As Hartford-Brainard disappears off your wind- 
shield, you might want to go into radar and zoom 
in until the runways appear, looking like a rail- 
road signal or half a pole-vaulting rig. Then return 
to your out-the-windshield view. 

Now, be sure to include the DME regularly in 
your instrument scan. When it reads 21 miles, 
take a ground view, looking directly down past 
your wheel, and poise your finger over the Pause 
key. When the reading is 20.4, press the key. 

Why are we looking down at this particular 
patch of green? There is absolutely nothing to 


distinguish it from thousands of miles of green 
elsewhere in the simulator (and the world). At 
least, nothing we can see. 

But look harder. You're just south of a town 
named Rocky Hill. And there used to be a river 
where you're gazing. About a mile to the left of 
this point is what's left of the river, now called the 
Connecticut River (it doesn't appear in the 

The river began to dry up awhile ago — two 
hundred million years ago to be inexact. And the 
area you're looking down at became very muddy. 

So muddy that the dinosaurs who strode the 
earth at that time left their tracks in the mud. And 
the tracks became embedded in the earth's crust, 
more or less permanently (fossilized). There are 
hundreds of such dinosaur footprints down there 
below you, a bit south of Rocky Hill, Connecticut. 
And that's why they've named the area Dinosaur 
State Park. If you can't see the footprints from 
where you are, perhaps you're just not looking 
hard enough. 

Time now for breakfast. Why not make a slight 
turn right to a heading of 210? It'll take you 
straight to Tweed-New Haven Airport in a matter 
of minutes. They'll be landing on runway 20, 
elevation 13 feet. Or if you're starving, that's Mer- 
iden Markham Municipal you see a little ahead 
across the highway. 

Then when you've had your bacon and a couple 
of dinosaur eggs over light, you can make tracks 





North Position: 17404 
East Position: 21723 
Altitude: 14750 
Heading: 173 
Airspeed: 125 

Rudder: 32767 
Ailerons: 32767 

Elevators: 45567 (IBM only) 
Elevators: 40447 (all except IBM) 
Time: 8:52 
Season: 2 — Spring 
Wind: Kts, 000 



=========================== ^ 


Throttle may not be used in this mode. ^ 

Imagine you're in a space shuttle returning from 
many days in orbit. You have reentered the at- 
mosphere and must set up your glide to land on tj 
the runway you see on the little island directly off 
your nose. You may land from either direction, 
since there is no wind. But if you miss the run- 
way, your gear will collapse in soft ground, and 
you will probably destroy your high-technology, 
multi-million-dollar spacecraft. Or worse. 

Take over as soon as you exit edit mode and give 
it your best shot. What the astronauts do is circle 
the landing target as they lose altitude. That 
seems like a reasonable procedure, but you may 
think of some other approach. 

Whatever you do, it's a good idea to keep the 
island in view as you glide. The runway headings, 
by the way, are 100 and its reciprocal 280, or 
numbers 10 and 28. Field elevation is 105 feet and 
the runway is 2500 feet long. That's much shorter 
than the deluxe freeways the astronauts land on. 

So drive carefully. And if you set her down on 
the runway, then, as the saying goes, "Outstanding!" 

Good luck. 



North Position: 17027 
East Position: 20942 
Altitude: 1000 
Pitch: 359 
Heading: 76 

Airspeed: 112 (IBM only) 
Airspeed: 120 (all except IBM) 
Throtde: 21503 (IBM only) 

Throtde: 19455 (all except IBM) 
Rudder: 32767 
Ailerons: 32767 

Elevators: 32767 (IBM only) 
Elevators: 36863 (all except IBM) 
Time: 23:11 
Season: 3 — Summer 
Wind: 5 Kts, 70 


You're over Jersey City, New Jersey, pomted 
across Upper Bay of the Hudson River ar\d toward 
the Statue of Liberty as well as the lower tip of 
Manhattan. The city is a festival of light in the 
distance, as you'd expect. 

Continue on course, adjusting pitch or power if 
necessary to maintain your thousand feet of 

Beyond the statue are the familiar World Trade 
Center towers. 

After the disk access, try to aim your aircraft so 
the statue will pass directly under you (you'll have 
to be pretty quick), and take a momentary down 

Next, head the plane so you'll pass just to the 
right of the Trade Center towers (there'll be an- 
other disk access as you fly). 

Take a left-front view followed by a left-side view 
to get a dramatic close-up of the buildings as they 
go by. 

Now turn left and set up a course to the left of the 
Empire State Building. Central Park, 26 blocks 
north of that landmark, will look like a huge 
green or orange runway ahead of you. 

And who could resist such a beautiful grass 
strip? Plus the fact that — compliments of the 
simulator — there are no guUeys, lakes, trees, 
roads, or other natural paraphernalia of the real 
Central Park to contend with on this flight. 

So I don't have to tell you what to do, do I? 
(Elevation is 20 feet.) 

But be sure to enjoy some close-ups of the grand 
old Empire State Building on the way. 


After you've looked around, tune your NAV to 
Carmel VOR, 116.6, and center the OBI needle 
with a TO indication. Then take off, climb to 
2000, and fly the needle. Be sure to look behind 
you as you climb out. Pretty. 

You're headed for a real (genuine, serious) land- 
ing at Westchester County Airport, about 12 miles 
this side of the OMNI station you've tuned. 

By the time you have your altitude, things look 
pretty dark ahead, don't they? Even those high- 
way lights on the right of your windshield begin 
to slip away. And around 26 miles out, they're 

Dark, isn't it? Kind of time when you look 
somewhere other than straight ahead just to see 
some light. 

But, then, aha! Some neat blue lights ahead. 

Radar doesn't provide any clue as to what the 
blue lights are, but they persist. Perhaps they're 
the Westchester County runway lights? 

The closer we get, the more it looks like those 
are runways, for sure. Westchester has three 
strips. (If you're flying an Archer, you never had 
the least doubt, did you?) There's no tower in the 
simulator for this airport, but assuming the winds 
haven't shifted, our runway of choice is 6. Eleva- 
tion of the airport is 439 feet. 

When you're convinced that you have your run- 
way in view, figure they're flying a righthand pat- 
tern. Base leg is 330 degrees. 

After you land, a cup of coffee would be great, 
wouldn't it? But you're lucky if you find anything 
open in the airport at this hour. If you do, play it 
cool. Have your coffee. But don't go bragging 
about how you landed in Central Park en route. 





North Position: 15503 
East Position: 5813 
Altitude: 799 
Heading: 161 

Add for this mode: 
Reliability Factor, 50 

Rudder: 32767 
Ailerons: 32767 

Elevators: 32767 
Time: 9:15 
Season: 3 — Summer 
Wind: 4 Kts, 170 


If you're like me, you wondered about that "relia- 
bility factor" thing for a while before you decided 
to try it. You were busy enough just learning how 
to taxi the airplane reasonably, and then fly and 
land it well. 

Then, there was finding out what clouds were 
like in the simulator, and next (as earlier in this 
book) exploring turbulence. 

Reliability, on the other hand, is a biggie. 

What happens when reliability is cut to, say, 50 
percent, as in this present mode? 

I don't really know. So let's find out together. 
I'll tell you what happens to me on this nice 
morning — cloudless, light wind, no special prob- 
lems other than reliability. And you see what hap- 
pens to you. 

Let's assume we're just going to fly contact in a 
relatively familiar area (familiar, that is, if you've 
flown several other Los Angeles area modes in 
this book). We're nicely positioned for runway 16 
at Van Nuys Airport in California. So let's plan to 
take off and fly toward the coast, then down it, at 
about 2500 feet, just sightseeing (and reliability 

First of all, if ever you checked controls this is the 
time for it. See if you have right and left aileron, 
and elevator and flaps, and that they operate in 
the right direction. 

I have right and left aileron, and elevator and 
flaps, and they operate in the right direction 
(according, at least, to my instrument panel). 

I'm also checking carburetor heat on/off — okay. 
Altimeter — reasonable reading. Directional g5n:o — 
agrees with compass. Fuel — okay. Oil temp — 
okay. Oil pressure — okay. 

Next, with brakes held on, I run the engine up 
to maximum rpm, even though the brakes won't 
quite hold the airplane. Looks okay. 


Tune Santa Monica VOR 110.8, just to check 
the set. Shows 13-odd miles. Looks okay. 

So there's nothing left to do but get this turkey 
into the air and see what happens. Come on and 
take off and fly with me. 

At a thousand feet I turn right ten degrees to point 
toward the ocean. Everything seems normal. May- 
be a 50 percent reliability factor means a 50 per- 
cent dependability factor, muse 1. There's as much 
chance that everything will function okay as that 
something will go ape? 

Now I sit here and start reasoning with myself. 
I figure whatever is in store for this airplane, it 
won't have to do with the mechanical controls, 
ailerons, elevator, flaps. The controls won't sud- 
denly reverse if they weren't reversed on the 
ground. And unless there's a giant fuel leak, I'm 
not suddenly going to run out of gas. My throttle's 
functioning normally. Oil gauges still look good. 

So the most likely failure will be some kind of 
engine failure. 

And if I stay near the coast, there are plenty of 
airports should I have to make a forced landing — 
seven of them, in fact. 

This may turn out to be a dull morning (from a 
reliability standpoint, 1 mean). I begin wondering 
what 20 percent reliability would be like. Or 
maybe zero reliability. 

Fifty-fifty odds are, after all, pretty good odds. 
Say, you had a fifty-fifty chance to win a million 

I do my instrument scan far more religiously 
than usual. 1 even look out at my wing tips to see 
if maybe one's tearing loose. 


Since I'm flying Cessna, in a fit of bravado 1 
raise my gear, though I usually fly with it down. 


(I fantasize a Cessna 150 when I fly the Microsoft 
simulator, since that's the airplane 1 learned in. 
And it certainly didn't have retractable gear.) I fig- 
ure maybe the gear won't lower. But I toggle the 
G key, and sure enough the gear is operating fine. 

I try to remember, should my engine quit, what 
keys switch magnetos. It's somewhere in the man- 
ual, but I can't remember thing one about them. 
So I just keep flying, fat, dumb, and happy. 

When I reach the coast I turn left to head 145. 
And keep flying. Looking frequently out the left 
side to check out the various airports along the 

At 9:39:05 even the clock's working. 

But I'm fresh out of airports for awhile, at least 
right on the coast. As I go by LA International, 
Torrance is the next good possibility. I'm more or 
less on a heading for that airport, I figure. 

I begin wondering whether the reliability is ran- 
domized. Whether 50 percent on one flight gives 
you X possible failures and on another flight, Y 
possibles. Along with Z probabilities of their 
happening or not happening, based purely on a 
roll of the dice. 

My estimate that I was on an approximate 
heading for Torrance was wrong. A chance look 
out the left side shows me Torrance farther inland 
than I thought. 

I start toying with the idea of hopping over to 
Catalina, feeling more secure with this 50 percent 
airplane all the time. 

So I tune Santa Catalina VOR on 111.4 and look 
at the DME. About 27 miles. 

Are you game? (Or did you land with an engine 
out somewhere behind me? Or did you never get 
off the Van Nuys runway?) 

If you're with me, get an OBI course and fly it. 
We'll see what's happenin' on Catalina Island. 

The course I read out is 164. Yours may be 
I'm on my way. 

Everything seems to be A-OK — airspeed, altim- 
eter, fuel, oil, straight-and-level at 2500. 

I begin to think maybe I'll go into edit mode for 
a second, and check to make sure the reliability 
factor is still 50 and didn't sneak back to 100. And 
at the same moment I'm thinking that, I get a disk 
access. So I decide to wait a few minutes and see 
if the new overlay has any problems in it. 

At the moment, the clock reads 9:45:23, and I'm 
21 miles from Santa Catalina OMNI. All the 
gauges look right and the engine's still humming. 
The sky's still blue. 

At 9:48:50, 1 go into edit mode and check the 
reliability factor. Just before I do, Catalina runway 
gets visible ahead. 

Reliability factor reads 50. 

I resume the flight. 

At 10.5 miles out of Catalina, I decide to turn left 
to a heading of 130, as a base leg for Catalina's 
runway 22, and then get on a long final — really 
long — ^just for kicks. 

I remind myself that the elevation of the airport 
on the island is way up there, 1602 feet. So I de- 
cide I'm already at an acceptable pattern altitude. 

I make my right turn and see by the DME I'm 
on a 4.5 mile final. And my altitude is 2200. 

I wonder whether you're still with me. 

I see-saw around a bit trjdng to get lined up 
well, and I make a pretty hard landing. But I'm on 
the ground. 

This compromised airplane got me into the air, 
took me down the coast over Santa Monica Bay, 
then flew me all the way across the Gulf of Santa . 

I call her "Ol' Reliable." 






North Position: 17100 

East Position: 
Altitude: 591 
Heading: 250 



Rudder: 32767 
Ailerons: 32767 

Elevators: 32767 
Time: 0:00 
Season: 2 — Spring 
Wind: 10 Kts, 300 


Do not precede this mode with another night 
flight mode. 

Sorry to disappoint Archer pilots, but the twilight 
zone exists only in the Microsoft world. But go 
ahead and read, and then fly out with the Cessna 
pilot, if you don't mind taking off in pitch 

Surely, this is a grass strip somewhere, because 
you're in your airplane and ready to take off. If 
not for the fact that there's no runway as such, 
everything seems normal. 

Or does it? Look at the clock. 

A few seconds after midnight. 

If it's midnight, then where's the darkness? And 
if there's no darkness, is it daytime? Is the clock 
wrong? Or are we on the other side of the Arctic 
night? Or what? 

That sky so blue. That grass so green. And that 
hour so late. Zero hour. Witches and spells. Mid- 
night. In a world — where? 

Should your lights be on or off? Toggle them, and 
see if it makes any difference. Do lights a night- 
time make? 

Take a look off your right wing tip. 

Weirder yet. Since when was your airplane 

Take a look behind you. Tail, too. Jet black. 

If it weren't for the fact that there's daylight all 
around you, this could be scary. No matter what 
view you take, there's the daylight. You're sitting 
in the middle of daytime. But at midnight. 

A mystic might venture a guess that you are the 
night. You and your plane. You've reversed roles 
with the darkness. You are the pilot of darkness. 

And your plane is the aircraft of darkness. 

Let's get out of here. Take off. Straight ahead. 
Let's see if we can fly out of this insanity. 

That monotonous green horizon drops under 
our nose. And that sky is a notorious blue. It 
continues blue. And it's only minutes past 

Did the takeoff seem a little slow to you? It did 
to me. Everything seems a little slow in this 
strange place. 

Maybe climb on out until we can see something, 
anything, ahead. 

Climbing to 500...2000. The horizon now seems to 
stay put. Only a look out the side tells us we're 
climbing normally. If anything lofted on that omi- 
nous black wing could be said to be normal. 

To 2500.. .3000. Still no landmarks. Anywhere. 

Now at 3500. ..4000. No. Nothing but daylight. 
Daylight at midnight. Weird. 

Try radar. Zoom out three, six, a dozen notches. 
What do you see? 

Where are the landmarks? Where on Earth is 

Start planning to level off at 6000. 

But perhaps even before you reach 6000 or per- 
haps by the time you read this or slightly after, 
something will happen. That familiar whirring 
sound. Sort of like strange wings. Maybe flying 
you into something. Or out of something. Read no 
further until it does. 

Now time has caught up with you (or you've 
caught up with it) and things are normal again — 
at least for the hour you're flying into (or out of). 



Turn toward those lights at the right of your j_j 
windshield. To a heading of, say, 270 or 275, so 
the two rows of lights come together at center U 
screen. And do what's necessary to get an altim- 
eter reading of 6000. U 

Note, as you do, that there's a blinking light 
just to the right of that little island of orange dots. 
That must mean an airport, mustn't it? 

Point your aircraft toward the beacon. There'll be 
still another beacon to the right of that one. In 
fact, two of them, one slightly above the other. 

Go into radar and zoom in or out until you see 
the beacon flashing (on radar) ahead of you. That 
shape you're fl5dng on the edge of look a little 

Just keep pointed toward that leftmost beacon. 
And start a gradual descent to 3000. You've a dis- 
tance to go. 

While you're flying, you might try to figure out 
where you've come from. Somewhere where night 
was daytime and your beautiful plane was painted 

Let's just say it was somewhere not on your 
charts. Like a different state. 
Or a different State. 




Olympic Run 

North Position: 21740 
East Position: 6375 
Altitude: 289 
Heading: 90 

Add for this mode: 

Wind Level 1: Knots, 210; Degrees, 280 
Shear Zone Altitude 1: 4000 

Rudder: 32767 
Ailerons: 32767 

Elevators: 32767 
Time: 5:00 
Season: 3 — Summer 
Wind: 6 Kts, 220 


// turbulence is not implemented in your version of 
the simulator, set wind to 10 Kts and ignore tur- 
bulence commentary. 

Dawn on William R. Fairchild International Air- 
port, Port Angeles, Washington, finds you pointed 
down the taxiway for runway 26. Your position 
and the airport lighting conditions give you a 
good chance to practice visual taxiing (without ref- 
erence to radar). The setup is very realistic. Try 
following the lights on the taxiway down to the 
far end of the runway, making your turn and get- 
ting lined up. 

Start off and steer a bit to the left, using the blue 
lights as your guide. Stay between the lights, 
paralleling the runway, and at the far end make a 
sharp left turn onto the centerline, which is also 
blue in the simulation. The actual runway heading 

If you call the tower on 122.8, you'll "hear" a 
slightly sleepy voice tell you that the active run- 
way is 25. No such animal. 

Before you take off, tune Tatoosh OMNI on 
112.2, and center the needle to fly to the station. 
You'll see your initial heading will be 262 degrees, 
and the distance is about 47 miles. 

Go ahead and get airborne, making a slight left 
turn to your heading as you climb out. Be sure to 
take a glance behind you, noting the airport out- 
lines and — the green area in the distance — the city 
of Port Angeles. 

For the present, plan on a cruising altitude of 
3500 feet (we'll experiment above this altitude a 
little later on). 

You're flying approximately west along the 
northern coast of the state of Washington, toward 
the northwesternmost tip of the United States. 

The Strait of Juan de Fuca, an inlet of the Pacific, 
is on your right, and across the strait is British 
Columbia (you have a private grass strip over 
there, remember?). 

Take a look out the left side. Though you can't 
see it, there's a giant area off your wing tip called 
Olympic National Park. It is one of the nation's 
most scenic, with rain forests, lush vegetation, 
skyscraper-high spruce and fir trees, and many 
mountains including a Mount Oljnnpus which ri- 
vals that of Greece, dwelling place of the deities. 

Stay on the 262-degree radial. 

At 5:30 daylight will turn on. 

Our intent is to fly to the northwestern tip of 
the Olympic Peninsula, which is all that area be- 
tween the Pacific Ocean and Puget Sound. At 
daylight you'll see the Pacific ahead of you. 

If you look at Tatoosh on your Seattle area 
chart, you'll see that the 262-degree radial is 
pointing you south of the tip. But to pinpoint the 
tip (it's called Cape Flattery) exactly, we can fly 
the 290-degree radial FROM Tatoosh. And that's 
what we plan to do. 

Thus, when you're over Tatoosh (DME reads 0), 
turn right to a 290-degree heading. And when the 
OBI setfles down, track the needle on the 290 

For all practical purposes, when your DME 
shows you're ten miles from the VOR, you're over 
the Pacific off Cape Flattery, as far northwest as 
you can fly in the United States. The geography of 
the simulator isn't at all sharp as regards this 
landmark, but anyway you did it. 

So now turn left to head approximately 150, and 
you'll find you're flying down the western edge of 
the peninsula. Tune your NAV to Hoquiam, 117.7, 


and keep fl)dng until the station comes into range. 
Your chart will show you that you're heading in 
approximately the right direction. You can set the 
OBI to 150 in anticipation of the station getting 
active, which it will when your DME starts 

Meanwhile, we promised a little experiment 
above your cruising altitude, and this is a good 
time for it. 

Remember that we set a turbulence factor of 2 
for this mode, with our 210 knots at wind level 1. 
The turbulence factor is multiplied by 100, and 
the wind (10 knots at 280) is added to that. We set 
the shear zone altitude at 4000. 

So let's climb through 4000 now to, say, 4500 and 
see what a turbulence factor of 2 gives us in the 
way of instability. Use a rate-of-climb of 1000 feet 
per minute. 

Note the turbulence about midway between 
4000 and 4500. The airplane just doesn't want to 
hold that heading, does it? But keep fighting it. 

Or should you fight it? 

Let's try another experiment. 

Lose some altitude again until you get out of the 
clear air turbulence. Then reestablish your 150- 
degree heading and climb back up into the tur- 
bulence to 4500 feet. 

This time don't fight the controls; don't use aile- 
ron. Let's see whether the heading averages out in 
the turbulent air. 

Your DME is already, or soon will be, active. It 
turns on between 69 and 70 miles out. 

Well, the heading sure doesn't average out, does 
it? Very quickly you're way off course. 

Descend below the turbulence again (you've 
plenty of time — it's a long way to Hoquiam). Set 
your OBI to fly the 140-degree radial to the sta- 
tion. Then do what you have to do to get on that 
radial. If you're a fledgling at this, remember that 
you're on the radial indicated by the OBI when 
the needle is centered, no matter what heading 
you may be on. If, in relatively still air, you then 
turn direct to the heading indicated by the OBI, 
your compass, directional gyro, and OBI setting 
are, or soon will be, all in agreement. Then, 
depending on the wind direction and velocity, 
your aircraft may head off the radial. So make 
whatever corrections are needed to keep the nee- 
dle centered. When it's centered, you're on the de- 
sired radial regardless of what compass heading 
your nose may be following. 

Once you're settled on course, straight and level at 
3500, and clearly on the 140-degree radial with 
the OBI active, climb back up to 4500 at about 500 
feet per minute. Remember to level off at your alti- 
tude — don't let the turbulence mess you up. 

Now fly the OBI needle as well as the direc- 
tional gyro and compass. Follow the needle; if the 
needle is to the right of center, use aileron to cor- 
rect to the right, and vice versa if the needle is left 
of center. You're always flying toward the needle, 
faying to keep it centered (without departing so far 
from your essential heading that you're on the 

Since the radial you're on (in this case 140) 
represents a straight line through the air (and to- 
ward the station), your gyro or compass heading 
assumes less importance. You may be flying side- 
ways, but your path through the air is relatively 

Trying to keep your wings level (in the simu- 
lator turbulence, at least) requires undue effort and 


just adds to the confusion. The simulator doesn't 
really bounce you up and down, as does actual 
turbulence. It simulates this with wing wagging. 
Note that there are no significant changes in your 
rate-of-climb indication, and your altitude remains 
quite stable. 

Looking from the airplane to the left or right side 
gives you a more realistic feel of turbulence than 
does looking straight ahead. The wing wagging 
then looks more like abrupt altitude changes, as 
the side horizon pops up and down. 

Stay in the turbulence as long as you like. Person- 
ally, I find it the least realistic aspect of the simu- 
lator, and a factor of 1 is usually plenty if I feel I 
want any turbulence at all. 

When you've had enough bobbing around, de- 
scend to your cruising altitude of 3500 and get 
clearly back on the 140-degree radial untU you're 
about 30 miles from the Hoquiam VOR. Then turn 
left to a heading of 90 degrees and tune your 
NAV to Olympia VORTAC, 113.4. Your DME will 
show you you're some 60 to 65 miles from that 
station. Set your OBI and make any corrections 
necessary to fly the 90-degree radial inbound for 
Olympia Airport. 

The highway you see ahead is U.S. 101, which 
skirts the whole peninsula. 

See if you can raise the Olympia control tower 
on 124.4. If not, just wait. They may contact you 
after the disk access; otherwise, contact them. 
They'll probably advise they're landing on runway 
26 since the wind is from 220. 

Elevation at Olympia is 206 feet. As you get closer 
in, plan a real professional approach, entering the 
downwind leg (80 degrees) at a 45-degree angle 
(35-degree heading). After your superb landing, 
you'll be just in time for breakfast. 

North Position: 17402 
East Position: 21435 
Altitude: 416 
Heading: 55 

Add for this mode: 
Reliability Factor, 10 

Rudder: 32767 
Ailerons: 32767 

Elevators: 32767 
Time: 9:30 
Season: 3 — Summer 
Wind: 8 Kts, 000 


Earlier in this book, we (or at least I) made a flight 
in the Los Angeles area with a reliability setting of 
50. It was uneventful, and I (we?) landed safely on 
Catalina Island. As 1 said at that time, I wondered 
whether you were with me, or perhaps never got off 
the runway or made a forced landing somewhere. 

An5^ay, our experiments (or mine anyway) 
would be incomplete without trying a decidedly 
lower reliability. If this flight is uneventful— at 
least from a reliability standpoint (no flight is un- 
eventful from a flying standpoint)— then we'll 
have learned that the reliability factor needn't be 
regarded too seriously. 

The prior sentence, like a well-known command 
in the BASIC language, has an IF and a THEN. It 
can also have an ELSE. IF such and such is true, 
THEN do so and so, ELSE do so and so. 

And so here we are at Chester Airport, Chester, 
Connecticut, all fired up in a highly questionable 
crate. Or, so to speak, in two highly questionable 
crates — yours and mine. We might as well fly to- 
gether, in some kind of compromised formation, 
like a pair of barnstormers in the early days, never 
knowing when the engine will sputter and quit, 
we'll spring an oil leak, some fabric will tear off a 
wing, or whatever. Yours or mine. 

If we can get off the ground, let's hop across 
Long Island Sound to Long Island MacArthur Air- 
port. (Douglas "Old Soldiers Never Die" Mac- 
Arthur would be proud of us.) 

I won't spell out the preflight checks you should 
make. I'll be too busy making my own. But I'll tell 
you when I'm ready to take off (runway 35) and 
what happens thereafter. 

(Long pause.) 





I'm ready to take off. I'm taking off. Follow 

I'm climbing through 1000 and making a climb- 
ing turn left to a heading of 240, just for starters. 

Heading 240 at 2000, I'm tuning Deer Park 
VOR on 111.2. DME reads 48.8 miles. Before I ad- 
just the OBI for a reading, I level off at 2500. 

I center the OBI needle and get a reading of 240 
(how's that for eyeballing it!). 

Disk access. 

Where are you? Are you with me? 
Crate's great to date. 

Long Island Sound's nice and blue ahead. 

Forty-three miles to go. Just possibly this 
reliability thing is purely in the imagination. We're 
supposed to imagine it, I mean. It isn't for real. 

Let's see, reliability of 10 on a scale of 100 
means nine chances in ten that things'U go— not 
right — but wrong! Or is it right? My math was 
never very good. (But I recall reading that Ein- 
stein, too, had trouble with simple arithmetic. 
Minds like his and mine are concerned with more 
profound things.) 

Are you flying? Are you still there? 

Forty miles to go. 

Thirty-eight miles to go. Take a look out the right 
side and there's Tweed-New Haven Airport. 
Wonder if they fixed the pothole yet. 

Straight-and-level at 2500. Indicating about 108. 
Thirty-three and a half miles to go. 

Would you set out to cross a desert in a 10 per- 
cent reliable car? 

Thirty miles to go. Needle a couple of degrees 
off. Have to correct right a bit. 



Lot of water dovm there. At 28 nules out, radar 
says I'm about in the middle of it. 

Maybe they accidentally left the reUability factor 
out of my disk. A slight oversight. An infinitesi- 
mal flaw. Maybe they abandoned the idea and 
forgot to delete it from the manual. 

Twenty-five miles to go. 

Maybe I'm being too conservative. Maybe I 
should get a little altitude and try a loop or a bar- 
rel roll. (Just kidding.) 

What are you doing? Are you with me? Are you 
reading this in a ditch somewhere? Or in the mid- 
dle of an expressway? 

Twenty-three miles. 

Twenty miles. 


What's your clock say? 

Seventeen miles. I'm just about over land now. 
Need still more correction to the right. 

Fourteen point six miles. And I think that's 
MacArthur ahead. It's a little left of the OMNI 

Elevation at the General's is 99 feet. No tower 
there. But considering the wind, I should land to 
the east. Runway heading looks like 70 degrees. 
So I'll fly out over the ocean and do a 180. 

Still about six miles from the airport, I guess. I'll 
pass a bit to the left of it to allow for my turn. 

Are you still there? Do you believe this reliabil- 
ity thing? I'm beginning to have my doubts. 
Really, 10 percent reliability ought to be more 
exciting than this. Maybe we should have set 1 

Airport's passing to my right now. Heading out 
over the ocean. Never heard an engine purr so 
pretty. Never flew straighter and leveler. Never 
saw everything work so perfectly. They could 
even use this clock to set Greenwich mean time. 


Just looked down, and I'm over the water. Time 
to start my 180. Are you there? Are you with me? 

Beautiful, controlled two-minute turn. Masterful. 
What a beautiful day for flyin'. 

Back off on the power. Runway not in sight yet. 
Passing through 330 degrees. Now I see it. 

I'm way too far left. Didn't plan that too well. 
Have to get over there and get lined up right. 

Heading 44 now and that can't be runway 7, 
and I can't tell which one is. 

Trying radar. Can't raise the airport at all on 
there. Have no time, anyway. Back to out the 

Should I go around? Altitude 1200 feet. Might 
as well land on that runway whatever number it 
is. Artwick will never know. 

Yes, get in position and take it. Approach is 
lousy, sloppy, miserable. 

Now left. Not too steep. Straighten it out. You'll 
land across it if you don't. Too much altitude. 
How far am I? Take it easy. You've got her. Com- 
ing up fine. Now your left turn. No. Straighten 
out. Got to go more right then left. Hope nobody's 
watching. Now left. Forget flaps. More left. Com- 
ing up now. Six hundred feet. Descending 500. 
Hope nobody's watching. All the power off. 
OvercontroUing. Too low. Down too fast — 1500 
feet a minute. Ridiculous. Add power. Get over to 
the right. Bank's too steep. That squeal. Runway. 

And all that glass. All that beautiful glass. 

Where are you? I don't see you. Did you make 
it? Did you ever take off? 

At any rate, when I see you, I'll give you the 
lowdown on this reliability thing. I figured it all 
out. It's like this: When you enter a reliability fac- 
tor of 10, everything works fine. The engine purrs. 
The clock keeps time. The gear goes up and 


— u 


down. The lights go on and off. The aUerons LJ 
aren't crossed. The elevator functions fine. The 
OMNI is right on. The grass is green. The sky is U 
blue. The airplane flies like a dream. Everything's 
perfect. Except for one thing: U 
The bank's too steep. 

Just a last word to clear up any misconceptions 
you may have from this book concerning the 
Reliability Factor. Since we had Reality set to for 
all the adventures, the Reliability always stayed at 
100 regardless of the percentage we entered. Set 
the Reality to 1 and the Reliability to 10 and see 
what happens. 

So long. Thanks for your company. Happy 





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Notes , , 









Flying Free 

FoJtv S)!Citin^. eustcrnized iltght sirrnjiQior scefwion oi/t you in 
me pitors seoi os vou fly ove* irciunrQims. ofourus skyKropefs. 
OfKl larva 01 rnvstenoys okpots 

fl^^ ^LfnyJoro' (fof if^ m PC ond PCJO w5 fUghi JSmu- 
Jlcrtcrl (for th$ Appl^ II,. 14 , ll$ qrid >C. Wofi 900, XL. Qfid 
XE, orKl ConmodOf* 4^) Ofe iwo of 'li& mosf pcpylof simijla- 
ttQTi gomes ever pudisfisd Mow, wilti CCWPliTFr* 4C Gfsai 
filgtit SiTiLjv'oro/ /^rfiwifu'sj ^ can -eKp^nftnce 1t>e Itwll 
qn<J myjtwv ftght Itw ™ii/te yo*J load the prograrn, 

Spaofic dir#ctiofis ard poramffteri oie gi^/en ta »t uo 
MCh flghi. arxJ d runnir>a cwmentary d&scriWi whot youl 

Herft's. o sompte of %om& cA the &)(firiing j>3ve«ntgr« 
yCHj'ii eKperiefice 

* Morteuver oround of^ beiiwMn ttie >owws of irw liitofld 
Trade Corner 

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• ■